Cameron Report - Disturbances in Northern Ireland
|Ancient Order of Hibernians||Members of Magee College, Londonderry|
|Armagh Civil Rights Association||Ministry of Development|
|Belfast Humanist Group||Ministry of Home Affairs|
|Campaign for Social Justice in Northern Ireland||National Democratic Party|
|Church of Ireland||National Democratic Party, North|
|Civil Rights Movement for North Derry||Antrim Divisional Association|
|Communist Party, Northern Ireland||New Ulster Movement|
|Congregational Union of Ireland||Newry Civil Rights Association Northern|
|Conservative and Unionist Association,||Ireland Civil Rights Association|
|Queen’s University, Belfast||Northern Ireland Housing Trust|
|Council on Social Welfare of the Methodist Church in Ireland||Northern Ireland Labour Party|
|Derry Citizens Action Committee||Northern Ireland Society of Labour Lawyers|
|Derry Housing Association Limited||Omagh Campaign for Social Justice|
|Dungannon Civil Rights Association||Omagh Civil Rights Committee|
|Fermanagh Civil Rights Association||South Derry Women’s Unionist Association|
|Fermanagh Unionist Association||The Churches Industrial Council|
|Knights of Columbanus||The Irish Council of Churches|
|Londonderry Labour Party||The Presbyterian Church in Ireland|
|Lurgan Civil Rights Association||The Ulster Unionist Council|
|Maghera Civil Rights Committee||Ulster Liberal Party|
WESTMINSTER MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
|R. Chichester-Clarke, M.P.||R. Kerr, M.P.|
|Miss B. Devlin, M.P.||Captain L. P. S. Orr, M.P.|
|G. Fitt, M.P.||J.Ryan, M.P.|
|Mrs. A. Kerr, M.P.|
STORMONT SENATORS AND MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
|Commander A. W. Anderson, M.P.||Senator J. G. Lennon|
|Capt. J. Brooke, M.P.||Senator P. F. McGill|
|J. Carron, M.P.||R. H. O’Connor, M.P.|
|I. Cooper, M.P.||Senator P. J. O’Hare|
|J.A. Currie, M.P.||R. Porter, M.P.|
|P. Devlin, M.P.||Dr. R. Simpson, M.P.|
|J. Dobson, M.P.||Senator W. Stewart|
|G. Fitt, M.P.||J. Taylor, M.P.|
|T. Gormley, M.P.||Senator C. Wilton|
|J. Hume, M.P.|
|Mrs. K. Alexander||Councillor J. Fisher|
|W. Algeo||L. B. Fleming|
|S.M. Allister||Dr. W. H. Foster|
|Mrs. E. Anderson||G. M. Fox|
|Capt. M. H. Armstrong||F. Gormley|
|H. Baillie (County Inspector R.U.C.)||P. J. Gormley|
|W. Beatty||Mrs. M. Hall|
|Mrs. M. Bishop||Councillor K. Hamilton|
|J. H. K. Bond||T. W. Hamilton|
|L. Boyle||C. Hannan|
|F. Bradley||G. B. Hargan|
|Miss B. Breen||Councillor J. Hassard|
|Councillor W. R. Brown||C. Healy|
|T. H. Buchanan (County Inspector R.U.C.)||Miss S. Heaney|
|J. H. Butterfield J. Carson (Detective Head Constable R.U.C.)||P. J. Higgins|
|C. Casey||Mrs. A. Hill|
|R. W. J. Cash||Mrs. B. Holland|
|P. Cassidy||D. J. Honneyman|
|E. Cassin||W. J. Hood (District Inspector R.U.C.)|
|D. Colciough||Rev. J. Kilgore|
|J. 0. Colhoun||D. Kelly|
|D. Collins||Sir Albert Kennedy (ex-Inspector General R.U.C.)|
|P. M. Collins||G. P. Kerr (ex-County Inspector R.U.C.)|
|Cardinal Conway||Canon H. Lamb|
|D. A. Corbett (County Inspector R.U.C.)||L. Laverty (Jun.)|
|Miss I. A. Crockett||H. Lowans|
|J. A. Cullen||P. Lowe|
|Miss M. T. Cullinane||J. Mageean|
|P. Cumming||Mrs. A. Mallon|
|Councillor T. Daly||H. Mallon|
|W. R. Davis||M. Mallon|
|Miss J. Deane||Councillor T. Markey|
|Dr. D. Deeny||W. Meharg (County Inspector R.U.C.)|
|Rev. R. Dickinson||Lt. Col. S. Miskimmin (S.S.O., U.S.C.)|
|Councillor J. Doherty||F. W. Monteith|
|J. Doherty||D. Moore|
|J. R. Doherty||R. Moore|
|S. Donnelly (Detective Head Constable R.U.C.)||Rev. G. R. Morrison|
|F. Doran||Miss K. McAleer|
|P. Doris||P. J. McAnena|
|F. G. Drayson||F. McAteer|
|P. A. Duffy||Dr. J. McCabe|
|N. Dynes||T. McCabe|
|S. Dynes||F. McCann|
|Rev. T. G. Eakins||Dr. J. R. McClean|
|W. Edgar (District Inspector R.U.C.)||N. F. McCleery|
|W. J. Elliott||Col. M. McCorkell|
|M. F. Farrell||Miss M. McCourt|
|Rev. Dr. N. Farren||H. McCrum (Detective Sergeant R.U.C.)|
|G. Ferguson||L. McDonagh|
|R.R. McGimpsey (District Inspector R.U.C.)||Rev. L. McEntegart|
|Mrs. R. McGlade||Sir B. McFarland|
OTHER WITNESSES (continued)
|S. McGonagle||D. M. Riddlesdell|
|B. McK. McGuigan||J. Robb|
|A. McKee||W. Robinson|
|Councillor J. McKevitt||Capt. The Earl of Roden|
|N. G. McMahon||J. Rooks|
|Councillor P. McMahon||Miss M. C. Roulston|
|Councillor B. McManus||J. F. Sayers|
|Mrs. M. McQuaid||Professor J. Scott|
|D. F. McQuillan||Councillor W. R. Scott|
|R. Niblock||J. Sherrard (County Inspector R.U.C.)|
|J. H. Nicholl||Miss B. Sinclair|
|J. O’Dwyer||H. Skehin (Detective Head Constable R.U.C.)|
|M. F. O’Hare||R. Smyth|
|F. O’Kane||C. I. Sterrit (District Inspector R.U.C.)|
|T. O.Keefe||F. Stevenson|
|P. O’Neill (Snr.)||T. Sweet|
|Miss P. F. O’Neill||W. F. Taggart|
|P. I. O’Neill||C. Toman|
|M. Patterson||P. Toner|
|J. A. Peacocke (Inspector General R.U.C.)||B. W. Walker|
|L. J. Prince||C. Watson|
|Councillor T. G. Proctor||F. C. S. A. White (County Inspector R.U.C.)|
|F. Pyle||H. Whiteside|
|P. J. Quigg||Mrs. M. Whiteside|
|J. Quigley||Mrs. T. Whitten|
|W. T. Quinn||A. Wilson|
|P. Regan||R. F. H. Wolseley|
|Dr. J. 0. Woods|
PERSONS REFUSING OR IGNORING A REQUEST TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE TO THE COMMISSION
|Rev. J. Brown||Mr. D. Hutchinson|
|Major R. Bunting||Rev. I. R. K. Paisley|
|W. Craig, M.P.|
THE CONSTITUITONAL POSITION OF NORTHERN IRELAND—ORGANIZATION AND POWER OF POLICE
I. THE GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND OF 1920
The purpose of this Act was to establish two subordinate parliaments in Ireland, one for Northern Ireland the other for Southern Ireland, both within the framework of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland as established by the Union with Ireland Act, 1800.
Under the Act of 1920, as modified by subsequent legislation, Northern Ireland was represented in the United Kingdom House of Commons by thirteen members (now twelve) and lost its representation in the House of Lords. By Section 1, 13 and 14 and the third, fourth and fifth Schedules a Parliament was established in Belfast with a House of Commons consisting of fifty-two elected members and a Senate consisting of the Lord Mayor of Belfast, the Mayor of Londonderry and twenty-four Senators to be elected by the House of Commons. By Section 8 it was provided that the executive power remained in the Crown but was to be exercised as respects matters within the legislative jurisdiction of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, by the Governor of Northern Ireland acting through the departments of that Government. Accordingly the limits of the executive power of the Government of Northern Ireland are the limits of the legislative power of its Parliament. Section 8 provides for the delegation to the Governor by the Crown of these executive powers and provides for their exercise through the ministers of Northern Ireland for the time being, who are to be the Privy Council of Northern Ireland ‘to aid and advise’ the Governor. These powers were delegated by Letters Patent dated respectively 27th April 1921 and the 9th December 1922. The powers so delegated were expressed to be exercisable subject to instructions which might be given from time to time by the Crown upon the advice of a Secretary of State of the United Kingdom. This was, no doubt, intended to preserve a measure of control by the Executive Government of the United Kingdom over the Executive Government of Northern Ireland similar to that which had existed both before and after 1800. It would seem to have been intended also to provide for the withholding by the Governor of the Royal Assent to Bills passed by the Senate and House of Commons upon instructions from the Ministers in London similar to the executive control which had been exercised through the Lord Lieutenant or Lord Deputy before 1800. This latter power was challenged successfully by the Government of Northern Ireland when an attempt was made to withhold the Royal Assent to the Local Government Bill Northern Ireland) 1922 (which conferred upon the Ministry of Home Affairs in Northern Ireland power to alter Local Government boundaries and electoral divisions and to impose an obligation on members of Local Authorities to make a declaration of allegiance). Since that crisis it would appear that the Ministers of Northern Ireland are ‘masters in their own house’ and the Governor acts upon their advice with respect to transferred matters in the same way as the Sovereign does in the United Kingdom. This Bill in due course became an Act.
The limits of the legislative powers of the Parliament of Northern Ireland (and consequently of the executive powers) are found in Sections 4 and 5. There is first a general power to legislate for the ‘peace, order and good government of Northern Ireland’. There follows a number of express limitations by way of reservation of legislative power to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The most important of these are: -The Crown and the Succession to the Crown, the Governor as respects reserved matters, the Armed Forces, Treaties and Foreign Affairs generally, Treason and Treason Felony, External Trade, Coinage and ‘any matter which by this Act is declared to be a reserved matter’. Section 5 contains restrictions upon the power to interfere with religion or religious bodies. Any Act of the Parliament of Northern Ireland which contravenes any of these restrictions is declared to be void. The validity of any law made by or under the authority of the Parliament of Northern Ireland may be challenged in any Court, and Sections 49, 50 and 51 provide for an appeal to the House of Lords or to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom upon any question affecting the validity of any such law. Courts of Law are established by Sections 38 to 49. By Section 47 the Supreme Court is declared to be a reserved matter, and its Judges are appointed by the Lord Chancellor. Judges of the County Court are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Minister for Home Affairs and are removable by petition of the Senate and the House of Commons.
The Supreme authority of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is preserved by Sections 6 and 75. By Section 6 it is provided that the Parliament of Northern Ireland has no power to repeal or alter the Act of 1920 or any Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom after the 3rd May 1921 (the appointed day) and extending to Northern Ireland notwithstanding that such last mentioned provision deals with a matter with respect to which that Parliament has power to make laws. It is expressly declared that any Act of the Parliament of Northern Ireland shall be void in so far as it is repugnant to any provision of an Act of a Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the appointed day. Section 75 expressly preserves the sovereign supremacy of the Parliament of the United Kingdom over Northern Ireland. By Section 61 all laws and institutions in force in Ireland immediately before the appointed day are (subject to the provisions of the Act of 1920) to remain in force and may be repealed or altered by the Parliament of Northern Ireland as respects that territory.
The financial relationship between the Governments of Northern Ireland and of the United Kingdom are provided for in Sections 20 to 34 of the Act of 1920. As they are extremely complicated and obscure it is fortunate that for the present purpose it is not necessary to examine or analyse these provisions.
By Section 1(2) of the Ireland Act 1949, it is provided:
‘(2) It is hereby declared that Northern Ireland remains part of His Majesty’s dominions and of the United Kingdom and it is hereby affirmed that in no event will Northern Ireland or any part thereof cease to be part of His Majesty’s Dominions and of the United Kingdom without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.’
Although the Parliament of Northern Ireland performs in Northern Ireland many parliamentary functions (including control over the conventional organs of Local Government) nevertheless it does occupy constitutionally a subordinate position in the United Kingdom. The special constitutional position of the Government of Northern Ireland, the comparatively small population under its jurisdiction (1,484,775 at last census), its restricted geographical area and the particular character of the political issues with which successive Governments of Northern Ireland have been concerned are accountable for the special nature of the police arrangements under the control of the Minister of Home Affairs.
II. LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE POLICE
The Royal Ulster Constabulary was established by the Constabulary Act (Northern Ireland) 1922. By Section 1 (3) the provisions of existing enactment relating to the Royal Irish Constabulary, as modified by the Act of 1922, are to apply to the Royal Ulster Constabulary.
By Section 2 it is provided that the Governor may appoint and remove each officer and constable, but all other powers which in relation to the Royal Irish Constabulary were exercisable by the Lord Lieutenant or by the lord lieutenant in Council shall in relation to the Royal Ulster Constabulary be vested in and exercisable by the Minister for Home Affairs.
Section 1 (2) vests the ‘general government and superintendence’ of the Royal Ulster Constabulary in the Inspector-General thereof.
Section 7 (2) gives the Minister for Home Affairs very wide powers to make regulations for the purpose of bringing the Act into effect and for the purpose of adapting any of the provisions of the earlier enactments relating to the Royal Irish Constabulary.
The principal provisions governing the force will be found in the Constabulary (Ireland) Act 1836. Under Section 5 of that Act the Governor appoints by warrant the Inspector-General and his deputies.
Under Section 6 the Inspector-General has wide powers, with the approbation of the Minister for Home Affairs, from time to time to make rules and regulations ‘for the general government of the Royal Ulster Constabulary’ for, among other things, ‘the purposes of preventing neglect or abuse, and for rendering the said force efficient for the discharge of the several duties thereof.’
By virtue of Sections 9 and 11, so far as not repealed, all officers and constables of the Royal Ulster Constabulary have and may exercise all the powers of ‘constables’ either by statute or at common law.
By Section 24 the Inspector-General or his deputy, or any other person or persons to be nominated for the purpose by the Minister for Home Affairs may examine on oath into the truth of any charges or complaint preferred against any member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary and report thereon to the Minister for Home Affairs. These would appear to be the only provisions for the investigation of complaints against any member of the force.
The rules and regulations for the management and control of the Royal Ulster Constabulary are, generally speaking, not published as statutory instruments. The only regulations affecting the force which are so published are, with few exceptions, regulations relating to emoluments and pensions.
Section 8 of the Act of 1922 provides for the appointment, management and control of the Ulster Special Constabulary. It adapts the Special Constable’s Act 1914 and the Special Constable’s Ireland Act 1832 and provides that the necessary regulations are to be made by the Minister for Home Affairs.
Section 1 of the Special Constable’s Act 1914, as amended and applied provides that orders with respect to the ‘appointment and position of special constables’ shall be made by the Minister for Home Affairs. The Special constables so appointed are to act under such direction ‘as may be specified in the regulations’. By Section I (e) the Minister for Home Affairs may make regulations ‘for such supplemental and ancillary matters as may be necessary or expedient for the purpose of giving full effect to the regulations. The effect of Section 1 (2) probably is to give the Minister for Home Affairs unrestricted power to ‘revoke, alter, or amend’ any such regulation ‘as occasion requires’.
The relevant regulations are S.R. and 0. (N.I.) 1950 No. 179. By regulation one it is provided that all special constables shall be appointed by the Minister or by such person as may be authorised by the Minister, and upon such terms as may, from time to time be prescribed by the Minister. Regulation five provides that all special constables shall be subject to such disciplinary and other regulations as be made or made applicable to them by the Minister. Regulation six provides that while on duty the members of the Special Constabulary shall be subject to the regulations for the time being in force for the discipline and control of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, subject to any inconsistent regulations made by the Minister under regulation five. Regulation eight provides that the Special Constable’s Ireland Act 1832 as amended shall apply to the special constables appointed under the Act of 1922.
It is provided by Section 5 of the Special Constable’s Ireland) Act 1832 as applied by S.R.0. (N.I.) 1941 No. 173 that all special constables ‘shall have exercise and enjoy all such powers, authorities, rights, privileges, advantages, and immunities, and be liable to all such duties, and responsibilities, as any member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary.’
The penalty for assaulting or resisting a special constable in the execution of his duty is the same as that for assaulting or resisting a member of the Royal Ulster constabulary in similar Circumstances where the conviction is upon indictment, or a fine of twenty pounds upon summary conviction; see Section 11 of the Act of 1832.
It will be seen that the relevant legislation does no more than provide a statutory skeleton for the organization of the Royal Ulster Constabulary and Ulster Special Constabulary. Arrangements for the actual training, discipline. management, control and deployment of both forces are left outside the scope of the relevant Statute and would therefore lie within the jurisdiction of the Inspector-General in collaboration with the Minister for Home Affairs. The actual management and control of both forces are within the province of the Inspector-General.
The special powers of the Minister for Home Affairs and of the police in relation to the preservation of law and order have now to be considered.
III. THE SPECIAL POWERS ACT AND OTHER EMERGENCY LEGISLATION
1. The Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Act (Northern Ireland) 1922.
This Act, and the regulations made under it as they were in force in 1954 will be found in Statutes of Northern Ireland Revised Volume A at page 17.
This Act gives the Minister for Home Affairs powers (which he may delegate to the Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry or to any officer of the Royal Ulster Constabulary) ‘to take all such steps and issue all such orders as may be necessary for preserving the peace and maintaining order… Provided that the ordinary course of law and the avocations of life and enjoyment of property shall be interfered with as little as may be permitted by the exigencies of the steps required to be taken under this Act’. All such regulations not contained in the Schedule to the Act as originally passed are to be laid before both Houses of Parliament. and if an address is presented within fourteen days to the Governor by either House the Governor may annul that regulation. These provisions will be found in Section 1.
As originally passed the Act was renewable every year. In 1933 it was made a permanent part of the peace preservation legislation in force in Northern Ireland.
Section 2 of the Act establishes a series of offences against the regulations.
By Sub-section (1) it is the duty of every person affected by any order to comply with it.
By Sub-section (2) any person ‘who attempts to commit, or solicits or encites or endeavours to persuade another person to commit, or procures, aids, or abets, or does any act preparatory to, the commission of, any act prohibited by the regulations or any order, rules or other instruments made thereunder, or harbours any person whom he knows, or has reasonable grounds for supposing, to have acted in contravention of the regulations or any such order, rules or other instrument’ is guilty of an offence.
Sub-section (3) makes it the duty of any person who knows, or has good reason for believing, that some other person is acting, has acted, or is about to act, in contravention of any such provision to give information to the Minister.
By Sub-section (4) any person who does any act ‘of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the preservation of the peace or maintenance of order in Northern Ireland and not specifically provided for in the regulations’ is guilty of an offence.
Sub-section (5) deals with the liabilities of directors and officers of corporations.
Sub-section (6) provides that the burden of proving that any act was done with lawful authority, or with lawful authority or excuse shall rest upon the person alleged to be guilty of an offence against the regulations.
Section 3 provides for the trial of offences. By Sub-section (1) any alleged offence may be tried by a court of summary jurisdiction.
By Section 5 a punishment by whipping may be imposed upon any person guilty of an offence under the explosive Substances Act 1883 as extended by the Firearms Act 1920, or under the latter Act, or in relation to firearms, the demanding with menaces or arson.
Under Section 6 any person convicted under the Explosive Substances Act 1883 of causing an explosion likely to endanger life or of attempting to cause an explosion with intent to endanger life may be sentenced to death.
Under Section 7 any police constable or any member of the armed forces or any other person authorised by the Minister has the same power of arrest as a constable has in a case where a felony (now by virtue of the Criminal Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1967 ‘an arrestable offence’) has been committed.
By Section 8 it is provided that all the powers of members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary are exercisable for the purposes of this Act by members of the Ulster Special Constabulary or any other police force ‘under the management and control of the Government of Northern Ireland’.
The regulations in force under the Act include the following:
Regulations 4. Power for any member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary to enter any house building etc. if he suspects that the premises or anything therein are being, or have been, or about to be constructed used or kept for any purpose or in any way prejudicial to the preservation of the peace or maintenance of order, or that a crime or offence against the regulations is being, or has been, committed thereon or therein; there is power to use force to effect entry, and upon entry having been made, to search.
Regulation 5. Gives power to any police officer to stop any vehicle travelling along any public road, and if he suspects that the vehicle is being used for any purpose prejudicial to the peace or maintenance of order, or otherwise unlawfully may search and seize the vehicle and seize anything found therein which he suspects to be used or to be intended to be used for any such purpose.
Regulation 6. Provides that any police officer or constable may stop and search any person whom he suspects of carrying arms or any document or article ‘in any way prejudicial to the preservation of the peace or maintenance of order’.
Regulation 7. Makes it the duty of any person if so required by a police officer or constable to stop and answer such questions as may reasonably be put to him.
Regulation 8. Gives power to suppress the publication of literature prejudicial or likely to be prejudicial to the preservation of peace or the maintenance of order.
Regulation I0. Provides that any officer of the R.U.C. for the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order may authorise the arrest without warrant, and detention for a period of not more than forty-eight hours, of any person for the purpose of interrogation.
Regulation 11 provides:
(1) Any person authorised for the purpose by the Civil Authority, or any police constable, or member of any of Her Majesty’s Forces on duty when the occasion for the arrest arises may arrest without warrant any person whom he suspects of acting or of having acted or of being about to act in a manner prejudicial to the preservation of the peace or maintenance of order, or upon whom may be found any article, book, letter, or other document, the possession of which gives ground for such a suspicion, or who is suspected of having committed an offence against these Regulations or of being in possession of any article or document which is being used or intended to be used for any purpose or in any way prejudicial to the preservation of the peace or maintenance of order, and anything found on any person so arrested which there is reason to suspect is being so used or intended to be used may be seized.
(2) Any person so arrested may, on the order of the Civil Authority, be detained either in any of Her Majesty’s prisons or elsewhere, as may be specified in the order, upon such conditions as the Civil Authority may direct, until he has been discharged by direction of the Attorney-General or is brought before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction. Any person to be brought before a Court under this regulation shall receive at least twenty-four hours’ notice in writing of the nature of the charge preferred against him.
(3) Any person so arrested shall, if so ordered by the Civil Authority, or by a Chief Officer of Police, or by Police Officer of higher rank, be photographed and linger-print impressions of the fingers and thumbs of both his hands taken, and if such person refuses to allow his photograph or such impressions to be taken or obstructs the taking thereof he shall be guilty of an offence against those Regulations.
(4) On a person being taken into custody under this regulation he may apply to the Civil Authority for release on bail, and, if the Civil Authority so directs in writing, any resident magistrate may discharge the person so In custody upon his entering into a recognizance, with, or without, sureties, for a reasonable amount to appear at a time and place to be named in the recognizance.
(5) Any person detained under this regulation may, without prejudice to any other powers of removal, be removed on the order of the Civil Authority to any place where his presence is required in the interest of justice and may be detained in such place for such time as his presence is so required there and whilst being so removed or detained he shall be deemed to be detained under the provisions of this regulation.
(6) If any person assists or connives at the escape of any person who may be in custody under this regulation, or knowingly harbours or assists any person who has so escaped, he shall be guilty of an offence against these Regulations.
Regulation 12 provides:
(1) When it appears to the Minister of Home Affairs for Northern Ireland, on the recommendation of an Officer of the Royal Ulster Constabulary not below the rank of a County Inspector or of an advisory committee that for securing the preservation of the peace and the maintenance of order in Northern Ireland it is expedient that a person who is suspected of acting or having acted or being about to act in a manner prejudicial to the preservation of the peace and the maintenance of order in Northern Ireland, shall be subjected to such obligations and restrictions as are hereinafter mentioned, the Minister of Home Affairs may by order require that person forthwith, or from time to time, either to remain in, or to proceed to and reside in, such place as may be specified in the order and to comply with such directions as to reporting to the police, restriction of movement and otherwise as may be specified in the order, or to be interned as may be directed in the order.
Provided that any order under this regulation shall include express provision for the due consideration by an advisory committee of any representations which a person in respect of whom the order is made may make against the order.
(2) If any person in respect of whom any order is made under this regulation fails to comply with any of the provisions of thc order he shall be guilty of an offence against these Regulations, and any person interned under such order shall be subject to such restrictions as the Minister of Home Affairs may direct, and if any person so interned escapes or attempts to escape from the place of internment or commits any breach of the rules in force therein he shall be guilty of an offence against these Regulations.
(3) The advisory committee for the purposes of this regulation shall be such advisory committee as is specially appointed by the Minister of Home Affairs for the purposes of this regulation, such committee being presided over by a person who holds or has held high judicial office or is a Recorder or County Court Judge or a practising Barrister of at least ten years’ standing.
(4) Any person interned under this regulation may, without prejudice to any other powers of removal, be removed on the order of the civil authority to any place where his presence is required for the purpose of entering into a recognizance, or in the interests of justice or for the purpose of any public inquiry, and may be detained in such place for such time as his presence is so required there, and whilst being so removed or detained he shall be deemed to be interned under the provisions of this Regulation.
(5) Any person interned under this Regulation, may without prejudice to any other powers of removal, be removed on the order of the Minister of Home Affairs to any place of internment, whether one of Her Majesty’s prisons or not, other than that specified in the internment order, and may be interned there and whilst being so removed or interned shall be deemed to be interned under the provisions of this Regulation.
Regulation 24A. Makes it an offence to become or remain a member of or to do any act calculated to promote the objects of any unlawful association or seditious conspiracy. For the purposes of that regulation the Irish Republican Brotherhood, The Irish Republican Army, The Irish Volunteers and certain other organizations of a nationalist kind were deemed to be unlawful associations. By S.R. & 0. (N.I.) 1966 No. 146 the Ulster Volunteer Force or any division or branch thereof however described was added to the list of unlawful associations. By S.R. & 0. (N.E.) 1967 No. 42 organizations describing themselves as ‘republican clubs’ or any like organization however described were added to this list.
Regulation 28. Every document purporting to be an order or other instrument issued by the civil authority and to be signed by that authority is to be deemed to be such an order or instrument without further proof unless the contrary is shown.
2. The Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951
This Act was passed in emulation of the Public Order Act 1936. That Act appears to have been passed to deal with the situation created by disturbances between ‘black-shirts’ and extreme left-wing elements. Section 1 prohibited the wearing of uniforms signifying connection with a political organization or object. Section 2 prohibited quasi military organizations. No provisions were included in the Act of 1951 corresponding to these sections of the Act of 1936.
Section 1 of the Northern Ireland Act of 1951 required notice to be given to the police of any intended processions. Section 2 provided that for the preservation of public order on the occasion of processions any officer or head constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary might impose conditions limiting the route of a procession or the place or places which it might enter if he had reasonable grounds for apprehending that the procession might occasion a breach of the peace or serious public disorder. By sub-section (2) the Minister of Home Affairs, if of opinion that by reason of the existence of particular circumstances the exercise of the above mentioned powers would not be sufficient to prevent serious public disorder, might make an order prohibiting for such a period, not exceeding three months, as might be specified in the order the holding in that place of all public processions or meetings, or of any class of procession or meeting as might be specified. Corresponding provisions are to be found in Section 3 of the Act of 1936. In England however the initiative had to be taken by ‘a Chief Officer of Police’ who might apply to the committee of the local authority, which might prohibit meetings with the consent of a Secretary of State. In London a Commissioner of Police was given power of prohibition with the consent of the Secretary of State.
Section 3 of the Northern Ireland Act of 1951 contained provisions aimed at ‘provocative conduct’; corresponding provisions are contained in Sections 5 of the Act of 1936.
Section 4 of the Northern Ireland Act of 1951 contained provisions against the obstruction of business and public meetings. Corresponding provisions are to be found in Section 6 of the Act of 1936. Section 5 (8) of the Act of 1951 gave a power of arrest without warrant upon ‘reasonable suspicion’: no similar provision was contained in the Act of 1936.
Section 4 of the Act of 1936 contained provisions against the carrying of offensive weapons at any public meeting or on the occasion of any public procession. No similar provision was contained in the Northern Ireland Act of 1951.
The Public Order (Amendment) Bill (Northern Ireland), now before Parliament, cannot be usefully analysed in detail because of the number of amendments which have been made during the committee stage. Clause 6 is intended to enact provisions similar to those of Section 2 of the Act of 1936 against quasi military organisations. Clause 7 seeks to enact provisions similar to those of Section 4 of the Act of 1936 and the Prevention of Crime Act of 1953 against offensive weapons and against the carrying of them in public places. In other respects the Bill seeks to strengthen the provisions of the Act of 1951.
In the prosecutions arising out of the events in Londonderry on 5th October the charges were framed as follows:
Three were framed under Section 2 (3) of the Act of 1951 for knowingly failing to comply with an order; Twelve were framed under Section 2 of that Act for organizing a procession:
Seventeen were framed under Section 2 of that Act for taking part in a procession;
Three were framed under Section 2 of that Act for inciting persons to take part in a procession: Four were framed under Section 3(1) of that Act for breaking through or inciting persons to break through a cordon;
Nineteen were framed under Section 59 of the Summary Jurisdiction and Criminal Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 1935 for disorderly behaviour (for which the penalty was two months imprisonment or a fine of ten pounds);
One was framed for assault upon a police officer in the execution of his duty;
Three were framed under Section 38 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 for obstructing a police officer in the execution of his duty;
Twenty-six were framed under Section 2(3) of the Criminal Law and Procedure Act 1887 for unlawful assembly, and
Seven were framed under Section 2(4) of that Act for inciting persons to take part in an unlawful assembly.
3. The Emergency Powers Act (Northern Ireland) 1926
Section 1 of this Act gives the Governor power to declare a state of emergency if it appears to him that any action has been taken or is likely to be taken in the immediate future whether in Northern Ireland or elsewhere the result of which would be to endanger essential services. Section 2 gives the Ministers or any of them any police officer or constable or local authority or other person acting on behalf of the Government such powers as the Governor may deem necessary for the preservation of the peace and for securing essential public services. Regulations may be made creating offences and such offences may be tried by courts of summary jurisdiction. The state of emergency is to continue until the proclamation is revoked.
ROYAL ULSTER CONSTABULARY
3,200 (inclusive of women police).
This is vested by statute in the Inspector General who is assisted in the general administration by the Deputy lnspector General. The Inspector General is responsible to the Minister of home Affairs for the maintenance of law and order in Northern Ireland but the control of the force and the carrying out of its functions are the sole responsibility of the Inspector General.
For police purposes Northern Ireland is divided into seven main areas, Belfast and each of the six counties. Belfast is under the direction of a Commissioner and each of the counties has a county inspector in charge. The Commissioner and the county inspectors are directly responsible to the Inspector General.
Belfast and the counties are divided into districts under the control of district inspectors with head constables to assist them. The district inspectors are responsible to the county inspectors.
Districts are divided into sub-districts and of these sub-districts those that are administered from district headquarters and the more important sub-district stations in Belfast are under a head constable. Elsewhere sub-district stations are under the charge of a sergeant.
There are 70 full-time police stations with 73 other part-time opening stations.
The force also has special branches such as the Detective Branch, Crime Special Branch, Traffic Branch, Livestock Unit and the Reserve Force. The Reserve Force’s normal primary duty is the general enforcement of the law and they are usually engaged in mobile patrol. They are also specially trained to deal with crowd patrol, civil disturbance and civil disaster.
Candidates appointed are British subjects of good education, character and physical fitness. Their normal height qualification is at least 5’ 8". They are over 18 sears and under 7 years of age. The appointment of members of the force is the responsibility of the Minister of Home Affairs and he determines the size of the force with the approval of the Minister of Finance.
ULSTER SPECIAL CONSTABULARY
Provisionally 8,285 members.
The force is under the command of the Inspector General of the Royal Ulster Constabulary who acts through his Staff Officer (Ulster Special Constabulary). The six County Commandants and two City Commandants of the Ulster Special Constabulary are directly responsible to the Staff Officer. These officers and their seven Adjutants are all engaged full-time as are a number of Sergeant lnstructors. District Commandants, Sub-District Commandants, Sergeants and men are all engaged on a part-time basis.
Each County and City has an approved establishment relating to its population and area and is divided into two to six districts. Local command is exercised by County Commandants through the District Commandants to the Sub-District Commandants who are in charge of 22 men.
Duties and Remuneration
Duties consist of attending training parades and carrying out patrols. Twenty-four training periods per year are required but these may be replaced by patrols, one of which counts as two training parades. The remuneration for a Constable amounts to £15 per annum with a payment of 9s. per hour for any additional patrol over and above those required as stated above. The remuneration of other ranks and officers is graduated up to a maximum of £125 for a District Commandant, with extra payment for additional patrols.
The role of the Ulster Special Constabulary is to act in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary in the protection of life and property and the maintenance of law and order. Duties performed both in training and emergency situations are:
(a) patrols of varying nature
(b) protection of vulnerable points
(c) relief of regular Royal Ulster Constabulary from routine station duties.
County Commandants act in direct and close liaison with the local County Inspector (Royal Ulster Constabulary).
The Ulster Special Constabulary has recently been put on stand-by to assist the police in crowd control but up to 31st July 1969 had not been so used.
This is based on a syllabus laid down by Ulster Special Constabulary Headquarters. In Belfast and Londonderry the syllabus concentrates on routine police duties and includes actual participation in station administration, beat patrols, law lectures, etc. Training in Civil Defence duties and weapon proficiency is also included. Civil Defence duties incorporate radio operation procedures and first aid.
In a County the syllabus lays more emphasis on arms proficiency in so far as it affects care, safety, accuracy and fire control.
Special Constables are enrolled and vetted at District or Sub-District level. The local police, not lower than Sergeant, also check all applications. County Commandants confirm or refuse applications but the actual enrolment is signed by the Inspector General of the Royal Ulster Constabulary on behalf of the Minister of Home Affairs.
THE TERMS OF THE MINISTERS' PROHIBITIONS ON MARCHES
PUBLIC ORDER ACT NORTHERN IRELAND) 1951
WHEREAS I, The Right Honourable WILLIAM CRAIG, Minister of Home Affairs for Northern Ireland, am of opinion that the holding, on Saturday, 5th October, 1968, of any public processions or meetings in certain parts of the County Borough of Londonderry may give rise to serious public disorder:
Now, THEREFORE, I The Right Honourable WILLIAM CRAIG, Minister of Home Affairs for Northern Ireland, in exercise of the powers conferred upon me by Section 2(2) of the Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951, do hereby order that the holding, on Saturday, 5th October 1968, of all public processions or meetings in any public highway, road, street or public place in that part of the County Borough of Londonderry situated within and on the Walls, and in the Waterside Ward of the said County Borough, be prohibited.
Minister of Home Affairs
for Northern Ireland
3rd October 1968.
THE PUBLIC ORDER ACT (NORTHERN IRELAND) 1951
PROHIBITION OF PUBLIC PROCESSIONS AND MEETINGS WITHIN CERTAIN PARTS OF THE COUNTY BOROUGH OF LONDONDERRY
WHEREAS I, The Right Honourable WILLlAM CRAIG, Minister of Home Affairs, am of opinion that by reason of the unrest and tension at present existing amongst certain sections of the community serious public disorder will be occasioned should further public processions or meetings be held in the ancient part of the County Borough of Londonderry within and including the Walls.
AND WHEREAS I am further of opinion that the powers exercisable under Section 2(1) of the Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951 will not be sufficient to prevent serious public disorder being occasioned by the holding of public processions or meetings within the said part.
Now, THEREFORE, I, The Right Honourable WILLIAM CRAIG, Minister of Home Affairs, in exercise of the powers conferred upon me by Section 2(2) of the Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951 do hereby order that the holding of all public processions and meetings (other than a procession or meeting of a kind specified in the succeeding paragraph) in any public highway, road or street in the ancient part of the County Borough of Londonderry within and including the Walls be prohibited for the period beginning on Thursday. 14th November, 1968, and ending on Saturday, 14th December 1968.
This Order shall not apply to any public procession customarily held along a particular route, or to any public procession or meeting customarily held on a particular date or occasion.
Dated this 13th day of November 1968.
Minister of Home Affairs
for Northern Ireland
THE PUBLIC ORDER ACT (NORTHERN IRELAND) 1951
WHEREAS I, Captain The Right Honourable WILLIAM JOSEPH LONG, Minister of Home Affairs, am of opinion that by reason of the unrest and tension at present existing amongst certain sections of the community serious public disorder will be occasioned should the public procession organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Oxford Campaign for Saturday, 25th January 1969, take place from the City Hall, Belfast, to the Parliament Buildings, Stormont.
AND WHEREAS I am further of opinion that the powers exercisable under Section 2(1) of the Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951 will not be sufficient to prevent serious public disorder being occasioned by the holding of the said public procession.
Now THEREFORE, I, Captain The Right Honourable WILLIAM JOSEPH LONG, Minister of Home Affairs, in exercise of the powers conferred upon me by Section 2(2) of the Public Order Act (Northern Ireland) 1951 do hereby by this Order, prohibit the holding of the public procession organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Oxford Campaign on Saturday, 25th January 1969, along any public highway, road or street from the City Hall, Belfast, to the Parliament Buildings, Stormont.
Dated this 23rd day of January 1969.
Minister of Home Affairs
for Northern Ireland
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
19TH JUNE 1968 TO 6TH MAY 1969
|19th June 1968||Dispute in N.I. House of Commons about an eviction at Caledon, Co. Tyrone, and allocation of a neighbouring house to an unmarried girl.|
|20th June||Mr. A. Currie, NI P. occupies the house allocated to the girl at Caledon.|
|3rd July||Derry Housing Action Committee members stage sit down demonstration at Opening Ceremony of extension to Londonderry bridge.|
|24th August||March from Coalisland to Dungannon under auspices of Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. Rerouted from Market Square, Dungannon.|
|27th August||Protesters hold up meeting of Londonderry Corporation.|
|3rd October||Proposed march in Londonderry from Waterside to Diamond under auspices of Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association prohibited from certain areas by Minister of Home Affairs (Mr. W. Craig, M.P.).|
|5th October||Clash between Civil Rights marchers and police in Londonderry.|
Student demonstration in Belfast against ‘police brutality’ on 5th October. Formation of what was later named ‘People’s Democracy’.
Formation of Derry Citizens’ Action Committee (in which Mr. J. Hume and Mr. I. Cooper are prominent).
|15th October||Nationalist M.P.s withdraw as official Opposition in N.I. Parliament.|
|16th October||At least 1,300 students march to Belfast City Hall in protest for Civil Rights.|
|19th October||Peaceful sit-down takes place at Guildhall, Londonderry. Organised by Derry Citizens’ Action Committee.|
|2nd November||March to Londonderry Diamond of Derry Citizens’ Action Committee members.|
|4th November||Capt. O’Neill (N.J. Prime Minister), Mr. Craig and Mr. Faulkner (N.I. Minister of Commerce) meet Mr. Wilson at Downing Street.|
|5th November||Mr. Wilson tells Commons at Westminster that he wants an impartial inquiry into events of 5th October. Supports Capt. O’Neill and advocates early changes in local council franchise.|
|9th November||March to Londonderry Diamond led by the Rev. Dr. Paisley and Major Bunting.|
|13th November||Mr. Craig bans all non customary processions and meetings within Walls of Londonderry for a month.|
|16th November||15,000 people take part in march organised by Derry Citizens’ Action Committee. Token breach of ban, followed by marchers filtering to Diamond and sit-down meeting there.|
|18th November||Processions of dockers and factory workers within Londonderry Walls.|
|19th November||More demonstrations within banned areas of Londonderry. Mr. Cooper (Chairman of Derry Citizens’ Action Committee) calls for halt to spontaneous marches.|
|22nd November||Announcement of Government reform proposals: i.e. ‘ombudsman’, housing allocations on points system, development commission to replace Londonderry Corporation, abolition of company vote, eventual withdrawal of some Special Powers. No introduction of universal adult suffrage for local elections.|
|30th November||March in Armagh, under auspices of Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, halted by crowd led by the Rev. Dr. Paisley and Major Bunting, who take over town centre.|
|4th December||Violence in Dungannon after Civil Rights meeting.|
Capt. O’Neill successfully appeals for support on television.
Derry Citizens’ Action Committee announce discontinuance of marches until 11th January.
|11th December||Dismissal of Mr. Craig.|
|16th December||N.I. Attorney General announces adjournment until May 1969 of summonses arising from the Civil Rights campaign at Londonderry, Armagh and Dungannon.|
|20th December||‘People’s Democracy’ announce decision to march from Belfast to Londonderry.|
|27th December||Major Bunting warns ‘People's Democracy’ marchers to avoid ‘Loyalist’ areas. March is criticised by leading Nationalists.|
1st to 4th January
|‘People’s Democracy’ march from Belfast to Londonderry.|
March reaches Londonderry after harassment and violence, particularly at Burntollet and Irish Street.
Riot in Londonderry.
Allegations of police violence and partiality. Police are excluded from Bogside area of Londonderry for the following few days.
|7th January||Announcement of march in Newry on 11th January.|
|8th January||Threat of counter demonstration in Newry from ‘Loyal Citizens of Ulster’ (Major Bunting).|
|10th January||March in Newry re-routed by police to avoid ‘Protestant’ areas.|
|11th January||‘People’s Democracy march’ in Newry. Counter march had been called off. Police tenders wrecked and Post Office damaged.|
|15 January||Government announcement that Commission of Enquiry into the disturbances would be established.|
|3rd February||General Election announced for 24th February.|
|19th April||Rioting in Londonderry following ban on march from Burntollet to City. Ban imposed because of fears of violent counter demonstration.|
Belfast water supply pipe blown up and other violence.
Police leave Londonderry Bogside area by agreement.
|23rd April||Universal adult franchise in local government elections supported by 28 votes to 22 at Unionist Party meeting.|
|24th and 25th April||Further explosions seriously affecting Belfast water supply.|
|28th April||Resignation of Capt. O’Neill as N.I. Prime Minister.|
|6th May||Amnesty announced for all offences connected with demonstrations since 5th October 1968.|
ULSTER CONSTITUTION DEFENCE COMMITTEE
ULSTER PROTESTANT VOLUNTEERS
CONSTITUTION AND RULES
The Ulster Constitution Defence Committee and the Ulster Protestant Volunteers which it governs is one united society of Protestant patriots pledged by all lawful methods to uphold and maintain the Constitution of Northern Ireland as an integral part of the United Kingdom as long as the United Kingdom maintains a Protestant Monarchy and the terms of the Revolution Settlement.
1. The Ulster Constitution Defence Committee has a membership of twelve, originally called together by the Rev. Ian Paisley. This committee is the governing body of the Ulster Protestant Volunteer Divisions and the only official voice for the movement. It forms the executive of the whole body.
2. The Ulster Protestant Volunteers take their name from the Parliamentary Division in which they are situated.
3. U.P.V. Divisions can be constituted when twelve members in any area are duly accepted by the executive and pay the required fee of 10s. The U.C.D.C. then constitutes the Division and from then on its membership consists of those duly accepted by the Division itself. Each member’s name and address must be duly notified to the secretary of the U.C.D.C. All suspensions and expulsions must be ratified by the Ulster Constitution Defence Committee acting as the Executive.
4. No one who has ever been a Roman Catholic is eligible for membership. Only those who have been born Protestants are eligible for membership. No serving member of the R.U.C. can join any U.P.V. division.
5. The Officers of a Division shall consist of: chairman, vice-chairman, secretary and treasurer, and two members to represent the Division at the representative meeting of the whole society.
6. The representative meeting shall consist of the U.C.D.C. plus the representatives duly elected from the U.P.V. Divisions. Only one representative from each division is entitled to vote, but the other representative can attend along with the officers of the division and can address the meeting by leave of the chair.
7. The business of the representative meeting is to deal with all matters brought before it by the divisions.
8. The executive will be the only policy-making body.
9. No statement of policy can be issued to the press by any U.P.V. Division until such times as the executive has approved of the same. This does not apply to statements of protest.
10. Each meeting of both the U.C.D.C. and U.P.V. Divisions must be opened with a reading from the Authorised Version of the Bible.
11. Each member must be prepared to pledge his first loyalty to the Society, even when its operations are at variance with any political party to which the member belongs.
12. Candidates fighting either local or Parliamentary elections must be approved by the executive. The local division have full powers to recommend such candidates for approval.
13. The officers of the U.C.D.C. consisting of chairman, vice-chairman, secretary and treasurer, can in any emergency issue a statement to the press, the chairman to be the spokesman. This statement can cover both policy and protest matters. In special circumstances the chairman can act authoritatively for the whole body.
14. Vacancies on the U.C.D.C. can be filled by the U.C.D.C. itself, but nominations can be received from the representative body.
15. Any member associated with, or giving support, to any subversive or lawless activities whatsoever shall be expelled from the body. The chairman of the U.C.D.C. has vested in him full authority to act in all such cases.
16. A copy of these rules must be read to all incoming members and his signature affixed to them in the minutes of the local divisions.
17. The body of representatives pledge to maintain the Constitution at all costs. When the authorities act contrary to the Constitution the body will take whatever steps it thinks fit to expose such unconstitutional acts.
CONSTITUTION AND RULES
The Organisation shall be called the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association.
The aim of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association shall be to assist in the maintenance of civil liberties, including freedom of speech, propaganda and assembly. The Association shall advance measures for the recovery and enlargement of such liberties and shall take steps as the Association deem necessary to that end.
3. The Association shall be non-party and non-denominational.
4. The Council
The Management of the Association shall be in the hands of an elected Council of fourteen persons.
The elective members of the Council shall be chosen annually at the Annual General Meeting.
Each member and affiliated organisation of the Association and the Council shall be entitled to make nominations, provided that in the case of nominations from members each nomination shall be signed by at least two members.
At least four week’s notice shall be given of the date by which nominations are required.
The new Council shall assume office immediately after the Annual General Meeting.
The Council shall have power of co-option. At no time should the Executive Council consist of more than twenty members.
The Council shall meet at least once even month. The entire control of the policy and business of the Association shall, subject to General Meetings, be vested in the Council, including the receipt and expenditure of the Association’s funds.
The attendance of six elected Members shall constitute a quorum of the Council. The Council shall have power to set up Area Liason Committees and Branches
of the Association and to determine their constitution.
The Council has the power to appoint sub-committees with specially delegated authority.
5. Chairman of the Council
The Council shall elect a Chairman and a Vice Chairman from their own number at the first meeting of the Council.
6. Honorary Secretary
An Honorary Secretary shall be elected annually by the Council.
7. Honorary Treasurer
An Honorary Treasurer shall be appointed annually at the Annual General Meeting.
Two Honorary Auditors shall be elected at the Annual General Meeting.
Membership of the Association shall be open to all persons who accept its Constitution and whose membership is approved by the Council.
10. Affiliated Organisations
Affiliation to the Association shall be open to all organisations who accept its Constitution and whose affiliation is approved by the Council.
11.Termination of membership or affiliation
The Council shall have power to terminate the membership of any individual or the affiliation of any organisation whose continued membership or affiliation is not, in their opinion, conducive to the best interests of the Association: provided that the member or organisation shall have the right to appear before the Council, and the right of appeal at the Annual General Meeting to a Sub-committee of five persons elected ad hoc by the Annual General Meeting. Members of the Council ‘shall be ineligible for membership of the Sub-Committee.
12.Fees and representation
Members and Affiliated Organisations, whose membership or affiliation has been approved by the Council, will be accepted on payment of minimum annual subscriptions or fees in accordance with the following schedule, and will have the right to cast the number of votes indicated in any postal ballot or at a General Meeting. Affiliated Organisations may appoint delegates to General Meetings not exceeding the number of votes to which they arc entitled.
£1 0 0
|Joint (husband and wife)||
£1 10 0
B. Organisation with individual Membership
Paid-up Membership of Organisation:
Annual Affiliation Fee
£1 0 0
|101 to 500||
£2 0 0
|501 to 1,000||
£3 0 0
|1,001 to 2,000||
£4 0 0
|2.001 to 5,000||
£5 0 0
C. Organisations without individual paying membership
e.g. Trades Councils. Co-operative Education Committees, etc. Terms to be determined at the discretion of the Executive Committee of the N.l.C.R.A.
Annual General Meeting
The Annual General Meeting of the Association shall be held in the month of January or as near thereto as may be practicable. The Annual General Meeting shall receive an Annual Report on the work of the Association during the preceding year. The report shall be issued to the membership and affiliated organisations on the same day as motions and amendments for consideration at the Annual General Meeting are circulated.
Motions on matters which are the concern of the Association, and proposals for the amendment of the Constitution, may be submitted for discussion at the Annual General Meeting of the Council, by Affiliated Organisations and by Members of the Council.
The Council shall give reasonable notice to members and affiliated organisations in October of each year of their right to submit motions or amendments of the Constitution by the date defined for consideration by the Annual General Meeting. The timetable to be followed shall be:
Motions and nominations for the Council to be received by the Secretary not later than ten weeks before the A.G.M. Amendments to be received by the Secretary not later than six weeks before the A.G.M. Final agenda, including the list of nominations, to be circulated to the members and affiliated organisations not later than four weeks before the A.G.M.
Motions on matters which are the concern of the Association and proposals for the amendment of the Constitution must be circulated to affiliated organisations and members of the Association. The Council, affiliated organisations and members of the Association may submit amendments to the motions and to proposals for the amendment of the Constitution shall be submitted to an A.G.M.
Proposals for the amendment of the Constitution shall first be submitted to an A.G.M.; if they are adopted by a two-thirds majority they become operative. If proposals for the amendment of the Constitution, when submitted to an Annual General Meeting, receive support from less than a two-thirds majority they shall fail.
The audited accounts of the Association for the previous year shall be presented for adoption at the A.G.M., and a report of the Council on the work of the Association.
13. Emergency Motions
Emergency Motions may be moved by the Council, Affiliated Organisations and Members of the Association at the A.G.M. An emergency motion shall be one which, in the opinion of the Standing Orders Committee, deals with an important matter of urgency of which under these rules notice could not have been given.
14. Special General Meeting
A Special General Meeting may be called at any time by the Council and shall be called at any time upon the written request, indicating the matters to be discussed, of at least fifty members or of Affiliated Organisations having jointly equivalent voting power. At least four weeks’ notice shall be given of any Special General Meeting.
CIVIL RIGHTS COMMITTEES AND ASSOCIATED BODIES
LOCAL CIVIL RIGHTS COMMITTEES
|Belfast People’s Democracy||Coalisland Citizens ActionCommittee|
|Fermanagh People’s Democracy||Ardoyne Citizens Action Committee|
|Armagh People’s Democracy||Belfast Housing Action Committee|
|Cromac People’s Democracy||Derry Housing Action Committee|
|Lurgan People’s Democracy||Deny Unemployed Action Committee|
|Derry Citizens Action Committee|
MANIFESTO OF THE PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY FEBRUARY 1969
1. One man one vote. This means not only the introduction of universal adult franchise at Local Government level, but also the redrawing of boundaries in a fair manner so that all votes have equal value: it means a swift end to the Londonderry Commission and direct control by majority decision in that city and throughout the Province.
2. An end to repressive legislation and partial law enforcement, by repeal of the Special Powers Act; the existing Public Order Act and the proposed amendments to it; and by the disbanding of the Ulster Special Constabulary.
3. A centrally drawn-up points system, based only on need, for allocation of houses with a central board of appeal. The drafting of a housing list open to inspection by the public. An end to social and religious segregation in housing. That there be freely elected democratic councils to control the estates.
4. The declaration of a housing emergency and the diverting of financial and physical resources to a crash housebuilding programme and away from unnecessary or prestige building. All vacant housing accommodation must be requisitioned, the Housing Trust debts to the Central Banks must be cancelled.
5. An emergency programme of direct state investment in industry to provide permanent full employment and to halt emigration. A massive injection of capital by the Government to set up industries under workers’ control in those state-owned factories vacated by short term private industrialists. The extension of workers’ control to all branches of industry.
6. The transfer of responsibility for all educational functions to a democratically elected central government. The grouping together of schools - both state and voluntary - into a comprehensive system, integrated on a social and religious basis, involving parents, students, and teachers in the government of such schools. Cast-iron guarantees that there will be no discrimination in the appointment of staff and that there will be no political indoctrination in education.
7. We oppose the existing agricultural policy of the Government which involves the clearing of large numbers of farmers from the land in the West and South of the Province and advocate the provision of employment in their own area for all members of the Rural Community. We feel that the situation where a few people control huge estates while many others barely exist on very small holdings is intolerable and suggest that these huge estates are broken up and the land used to form co-operative farms for those small-holders who are willing to move into them.
8. Since we are making our demands for Civil Rights within Northern Ireland and recognising that the people of Northern Ireland have the right to determine their own political future, we regard the border as irrelevant in our struggle for Civil Rights. Our view on the Republic of Ireland is that many of our demands in the North are equally relevant in the Republic and we support those who are working for full Civil Rights there and elsewhere.
9. This election presents us with an opportunity of furthering our demands for full Civil Rights in Northern Ireland; we shall continue to make our demands by all peaceful, non-violent methods both inside and outside Parliament until they are attained.
CAIN contains information and source material on the conflict and politics in Northern Ireland.
CAIN is based within Ulster University.
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