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Life in Two Enclave Areas. Chapter 1: The sample and population in the areas surveyed



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Text: Ruth Moore and Marie Smyth Page Design: Fionnuala McKenna

1. THE SAMPLE AND THE POPULATIONS IN THE AREAS SURVEYED

The examination of Gobnascale and the Fountain began by attempting to establish basic population figures for each area. At the time this study began, enumeration district data, where subsets of census data for 400 households could be obtained, was not yet available, - but became available within the first year of the study. However, since the Fountain fell below the size of an enumeration district, and since enumeration district data was only available on the 1991 census, that source of data was unsuitable. In order to examine migration in and out of the two areas over a period of time, it is necessary to be able to examine and compare data from more than one year, in order to examine shifts in population over time. Small area statistics from the 1971, 1981 and 1991 Census of Population for Northern Ireland were used for this purpose. In order to establish the boundaries of the two areas as accurately as possible, local community workers and residents were consulted and a grid reference which corresponded as closely as possible with the area was agreed. Data was obtained for each of these two areas for the three census years. Further details of this process, together with the grid references used are contained in Appendix 1.

The following tables summarise the findings on total population, religion and migration for each of the two areas:

Table 1: Population of The Fountain:
Small area statistics from the Census of Population

1971

1981

1991

% change
1971-1991

TOTAL POPULATION OF
THE FOUNTAIN

1282

668

467

-63.6%

as a % age of the total
1971 population

100

52.11

36.43

Total Roman Catholic

203

75

64

-68.5%

Total Presbyterians

492

183

130

-73.6%

Total Church of Ireland

562

294

144

-74.4%

Total Methodist

71

30

16

-77.5%

Total Other

108

96

83

-23.1%

Table 2: Population of Gobnascale:
Small area statistics from the Census of Population



1971 1981 1991 % change
1971-1991
TOTAL POPULATION OF
GOBNASCALE
1781 1741 1312

Total Roman Catholic 1098 1246 1190 +8.4
Total Presbyterians 200 21 5 -97.5
Total Church of Ireland 156 13 0 -100
Total Methodist 41 0 0 -100
Total Other, None & Not Stated 268 461 117 -56.3



From this exercise, we established a figure for the total population for each area, which also reflected the impressions of the total population figure held by local community organisations in both areas. The establishment of this figure allowed decisions to be made about the sample size for the survey. Details of the selection of the sample, together with data on the confidence limits and sampling procedures, are contained in Appendix 2.

This baseline data also afforded a perspective, - the limitations of the 1991 Census notwithstanding,- on migration in the two areas over the twenty year period examined. From the baseline data, it appeared important to examine in the survey the stability of the population in each area, and their intention to move or stay in the area. These issues were included in the questionnaire (see Appendix 3) and the findings are discussed in Section 1: Migration and the Stability of the Populations.

The sample selected in the survey in both areas were also asked about their length of residence, religion, identity, gender, age, housing tenure, housing type, number in household, their main activity in the previous week, annual income and source of income, and experience of unemployment in the last 5 years.

Length of residence
Question 1 on the questionnaire asked:

How long have lived where you now live?

Responses to question 1 are shown in the table below and in the following diagram.

Table 3: Length of time in present residence:
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale % Fountain %
< 6 months

3

7

1

6

6 months -1 year

13

4

5

3

over 1 but under 2 years

17

11

6

9

over 2 but under 5 years

36

21

14

17

over 5 but under 10 years

47

16

18

13

over 10 but under 20 years

72

23

27

19

over 20 but under 40 years

70

15

27

12

over 40 but under 60 years

6

11

2

9

60 years or more

0

13

0

11

Total

264

121

100

100

Differences in responses between the two areas were significant at the .0 level. An examination of the data reveals that a "bulge" in the Gobnascale figures occurs in the over 10 and under 20 years and in the over 20 but under 40 year category, whereas the Fountain figures show no such trend. This "bulge" can be explained by the settlement pattern in Gobnascale, which was largely influenced by the building of a new housing area in the early 1970's, thus explaining the inflated numbers of people who have lived in the area since that housing became available. Conversely, 11% of Fountain respondents fell into the "60 years or more" category, whereas no Gobnascale respondents fell into this category. It would appear that Gobnascale has a relatively sudden pattern of settlement, with an influx of population in the 1970's, whereas no such sharp influx seems to have occurred in the Fountain.

We know from qualitative data that there was an influx of Protestants from other parts of the city into the Fountain in the early 1970, and this could explain the slight rise in the percentage of respondents in the 10-20 and 20-40 year categories. There is a fall in numbers, however, in the 5-10 year category in the Fountain, which would tend to suggest a marked loss of population in the period 1984-1989. Conversely, 6% of Fountain respondents, (compared with only 1% of Gobnascale respondents) indicated that they had lived in the area for less than 6 months. This would suggest a recent influx of new residents. A Housing Executive survey in the Fountain, also conducted in February 1996, suggests that there may also be some movement of residents within the area, and point out that the highest housing turnover is in the flats and maisonettes. This is also true to a much lesser extent in Gobnascale, where flats have been used as single person housing, although it takes place within a much more stable population.)

Nonetheless, the figures for the Fountain suggest a high level of new residents, whether they move into the area from outside, or move within the area. However, we know from qualitative data, that this may not necessarily be a positive development for an area with a population decline, since some of that influx may be accounted for by the unofficial use of some housing units as emergency or short-term housing, as housing for single people, often those being discharged from residential facilities, or, subversively, as giro-drops. Over 70% of these new residents - those living in the area for less than a year- are male, and qualitative evidence suggests that many of these males have alcohol problems. Certainly, from the qualitative data, we know that the influx of newcomers is a matter of some anxiety for Fountain residents, who fear that the culture of the area is endangered by an influx of people without previous connection to the area. Some common anxiety about the "high turnover of newcomers to the area" and about the "area [being] used as a 'dumping ground' for people with problems" surfaced in the interviews, and were included in the questionnaire (see question 13), which is discussed in section 4.













Graph






The next characteristic of the population and of the sample which was examined was the religious make up of the population, and of the sample. Tables 1 and 2 show the religious breakdown of the two areas over a twenty year period. Table 4 shows the comparative religious breakdown of the sample in both areas.

Table 4: Religion of the sample
Numbers and percentages in each community


. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale % Fountain %
No religion

7

8

3

7

Christian- no denomination

8

10

3

8

Catholic

139

3

91

2

Church of Ireland

1

45

0

37

Presbyterian

2

37

1

31

Methodist

0

6

0

5

Brethren

0

0

0

0

Baptist

1

2

0

2

other Protestant

1

1

0

1

other Christian

2

4

1

3

Other non-Christian

0

1

0

1

No response

3

4

1

3

Total

264

121

100

100

Predictably, the difference between the two areas is significant at the .0 level, and the religious composition in the two areas is markedly different. In Gobnascale 91% of the population is Catholic, with a further 6% indicating that they had either no religion or no denomination. Two (1%) Presbyterians appeared in the Gobnascale sample, and were the only other denomination present in the area.

In the Fountain, the situation was only slightly less religiously homogenous. Church of Ireland, Presbyterian and Methodists accounted for 73% of the Fountain sample, with a further 15% claiming no religion or no denomination. The sample reflected the trends in religious composition which were observable from our interrogation of small area census data for the two areas.






GRAPH












Question 25 of the questionnaire asked about the community identity of respondents. The results are shown in Table 5, and in the following diagram. Again, the responses are significantly different between the two communities at the .0 level.

Table 5: Community identity
Numbers and percentages in each community

.

Gobnascale

Fountain

Gobnascale%

Fountain%

member of Catholic
community

248

4

94

3

member of Protestant
community

3

102

1

84

Religious

1

0

0

0

Jehovah's Witness

0

2

0

2

Other

6

8

2

7

No response

6

5

2

4

Total

264

121

100

100

GRAPH









Table 5 and the diagram above illustrate the slight difference in polarisation between the two samples, with the Fountain sample containing 3% of respondents who identify with the Catholic community, whereas the Gobnascale sample contained only 1% of respondents who identified with the Protestant community.

Question 29 established the gender of respondents. The results are shown in Table 6 and the following diagram. In the Gobnascale sample, only 33% of respondents were male, whereas 46% of Fountain respondents were male. The gender difference between the two areas is significant at the .01 level.

When we compare the gender make-up of the sample to data on the gender make-up of the population in both areas from the extracted census data, we find that the sample is only 33% male in Gobnascale, compared with 48% male in the population according to the census data. The Fountain sample matches the proportions of males in the census of population data for the Fountain (46% male)and the 52% female in the Fountain sample matches the population data also, if we allow the 2% no response rate in the Fountain to be female.

It would appear that our Gobnascale sample contains a disproportionate representation of females, and in future analysis, the data could be weighted to take this into account. This skew in favour of females possibly arose in the self-completion nature of the questionnaire. We were aware in carrying out the fieldwork, that, although we specified which family member we wished to complete the questionnaire, the internal division of labour within households meant that another family member- now apparently female - sometimes completed the questionnaire on behalf of the selected person. This could account for the skew.

Table 6: Gender
Numbers and percentages in each community

.

Gobnascale

Fountain

Gobnascale%

Fountain%

Male
86
56
33
46
Female
177
63
67
52
No response
1
2
0
2
Total
264
121
100
100

GRAPH









We will return to the issue of gender when we look at the next set of data on age.

We established the age groupings of our sample in question 30 of the questionnaire. The results are shown in Table 7 and in the following diagram. There were no significant differences between the two samples in relation to age. However, examination of the age distribution shows that 31% of the sample
Table 7: Age

Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
under 14
0
0
0
0
over 14 and under 17
3
0
1
0
over 17 and under 21
22
3
8
2
over 21 and under 25
20
11
8
9
over 25 and under 30
34
14
13
12
over 30 and under 40
64
24
24
20
over 40 and under 50
35
14
13
12
over 50 and under 60
39
16
15
13
over 60 and under 70
26
20
10
17
over 70
18
17
7
14
No response
3
2
1
2
Total
264
121
100
100

GRAPH









is over the age of sixty, whereas only 17% of the Gobnascale sample falls into the same category. However, this does not entirely reflect the age data which we obtained from extracts of the census for the two areas. These can be summarised as follows:

Table 8: 1991 Census: Age in The Fountain and Gobnascale
Numbers and Percentages in each community

Age Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale
as %
Fountain
as %
under 16

441

102

34

22

16-19
110
37

8

8
20-29
265
75
20
16
30-39
136
54
10
12
40-49
138
38
11
8
50-59
128
43
10
9
60-69
59
58
4
12
70+
35
60
3
13
Total
1312
467
100
100
Source: The Northern Ireland Census for 1991

From an examination of the census data, it appears that 25% of the Fountain population was over the age of 60 in 1991, whereas only 7% of Gobnascale residents fell into this category. A further gender breakdown of these data reveals that 82 residents or 17.5% of the Fountain population are females over the age of 60, while only 63 (4.8%) of a total population of 1312 in Gobnascale fell into this category.

Conversely, at the lower end of the age range, the largest single proportion of the population in Gobnascale (34%) was under the age of 16. The equivalent proportion in the Fountain was 22%. Thus it appears that, whilst our sample may not reflect it, the Fountain contains a larger proportion of older people, whilst Gobnascale contains a larger proportion of young people.

Housing Tenure

Questions 31 and 32 in the questionnaire establish the tenure and nature of housing among respondents from each of the two areas. The following two tables and diagrams illustrate the responses to these questions.

Table 9: Tenure of Accommodation
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
Housing Executive
accommodation

211

84

80

69

Privately rented

2

12

1

10

Owned by you/family

48

21

18

17

Co-ownership

1

0

0

0

Tied accommodation

0

2

0

2

No response

2

2

1

2

Total

264

121

100

100

GRAPH







Predictably, the vast majority (80%) of Gobnascale respondents live in public housing, as do a smaller majority (69%) of Fountain respondents. The differences between the two areas were significant at the .0001 level, due to a larger privately rented sector (10%) in the Fountain. There were similar levels of owner occupation in each area (Fountain 17% and Gobnascale 18%) from which the impact of the sale of public housing can be notices, especially in Gobnascale, which was an area predominated by public housing until relatively recently. The Fountain, on the other had, always contained a proportion of owner occupiers, albeit many of them in sub-standard housing. Therefore, we conclude that significant difference exist between the two samples in terms of housing tenure.

Housing type

Again, in terms accommodation type, significant differences (at the .0 level) exist between the two areas. Terraced housing is the predominant type of accommodation in both the Fountain (48%) and the Gobnascale sample (67%), although self-contained purpose built flats or maisonettes (40%) account for a substantial amount of the housing in the Fountain. Semi-detached houses or bungalows accounted for 17% of Gobnascale housing in the sample, whilst it accounted for only 4% in the Fountain, reflecting the more suburban setting of Gobnascale. Similarly, 8% of Gobnascale housing was detached houses or bungalows, which accounted for only 1% of Fountain housing. The environment in which people live in these two areas is significantly different, both in terms of housing mix and housing tenure. Table 10 and the following diagram show the results of question 32 in the questionnaire.


Table 10 : Accommodation type
Numbers and percentages in each communities


.

Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
detached house/bungalow
20

1

8

1

semi-detached house
/bungalow

45

5

17

4
terraced house
178

58

67

48

self-contained purpose
flat/maisonette

12

48

5

40
self-contained converted
flat/maisonette

1

2

0

2
rooms- not self-contained
0

0

0

0

other

0

2

0

2

No response
8

5

3

4

Total

264

121

100

100

GRAPH





Household Size

Two questions in the questionnaire elicited information about household size. Question 33 asked for the number of people over the age of 18 in the household, and question 34 asked for the number under 18. Tables 11-13 show the results for these questions. Table 11 shows the number of persons over 18 in households in both areas. There were no significant differences between the two areas on this variable.

Table 11 : Number in house over 18
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
One
106
60
40
50
Two
115
46
44
38
Three
26
7
10
6
Four
13
3
5
2
Five
2
3
1
2
Six
1
0
0
0
No response
1
2
0
2
Total
264
121
100
100

Table 12: Children under 18 in house
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
None
101
80
38
66
One
56
17
21
14
Two
55
13
21
11
Three
24
5
9
4
Four
17
4
6
3
Five
8
0
3
0
Six
2
0
1
0
Seven
1
0
0
0
No response
0
2
0
2
Total
264
121
100
100

Table 12 shows the numbers of children under 18 in households in both areas. A significant difference at the .00005 level emerged on this question. 66% of households in the Fountain and only 38% of households in Gobnascale contained no children under 18. In all other categories there was a lower proportion of Fountain households, indicating an overall lower population of children in the Fountain.















GRAPH






When the data from questions 33 and 34 was aggregated, it was possible to compile data about household size in the two areas. Table 13, and the diagram following, shows the results of this exercise. We can then compare this with the data extracted from the 1991 census, shown in Table 14. No significant difference was found between the two areas in the number of people over 18 in the household. However, significant differences exist between the two areas at the .00005 level on the number of people under the age of 18 in households.

Table 13 : Total household size
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
One
38
50
14
41
Two
64
27
24
22
Three
64
15
24
12
Four
42
14
16
12
Five
26
9
10
7
Six
23
4
9
3
Seven
4
0
2
0
Eight
2
0
1
0
Nine
1
0
0
0
No response
0
2
0
2
Total
264
121
100
100

GRAPH






Table 14:
N.I. Census: Total household size
Numbers and percentages in each area



Household size
Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
1 person households
89
95
22
47
2 person households
78
47
20
23
3 person households
74
19
19
9
4 person households
56
20
14
10
5 person households
37
10
9
5
6 person households
36
6
9
3
7+ person households
29
6
7
3
Total households
399
203
100
100
Source: Northern Ireland Census 1991

There is some variation between the respondents in our sample and the extracts from census data. According to the census data 47% of households in the Fountain and 22% of Gobnascale households are single person households, whereas only 41% of Fountain households and 14% of Gobnascale households in our sample fell into this category. Differences also occurred between our sample and the census data in the proportion of two and three person households in each area, and in the numbers of households with seven or more people in each area. Our sample contained proportionally less of these households than the census data would indicate is present in both areas. However, the degree of difference between the two areas seems to be similar between our sample and the census data. It is also worth noting that some changes may have occurred to the population structure in the five years since the census material was collected, which may explain some of the difference between our sample and the census data.


Economic activity, work and unemployment

Question 35 asked respondents to indicate from a list of choices what they were doing in the previous week. Table 15 and the two diagrams following show their responses. The responses from the two areas were significantly different at the .002 level.





Table 15: Activity in last week
Numbers and percentages in each community



.

Gobnascale

Fountain

Gobnascale%

Fountain%

Full or p.t. education

12

2

5

1

government training

4

2

2

2

part-time work

13

9

5

7

full-time work

43

24

16

20

waiting to take up work
already accepted

0

0

0

0

registered unemployed

60

21

23

17

unemployed and not registered

1

3

0

2

applying for work/training
/education

2

1

1

1

permanently sick/disabled

35

16

13

13

retired from work

24

25

9

21

looking after the home

56

8

21

7

caring for dependant relatives

4

3

2

2

doing something else

6

2

2

2

No response

4

5

2

4

Total

264

121

100

100

There are differences between the proportion in the two areas who are registered unemployed. 13% of Gobnascale respondents and 17% of Fountain respondents selected this category. Conversely, 20% of Fountain respondents and only 16% of Gobnascale respondents said that they were in full-time work, and 7% of Fountain respondents and 5% of Gobnascale respondents said that they were in part-time work. When we compare this with data extracted from the 1991 census for the two areas, (see tables 16-18) we find that the census data tends to confirm a higher economic activity level in the Fountain,

2 GRAPHS



































Gobnascale. A much larger proportion of Gobnascale respondents (21%) described their activity in the previous week as "looking after the home": only 7% of Fountain respondents selected this option. Finally, a higher proportion of Gobnascale respondents (5%) reported "full or part time education" as their activity in the previous week, compared with only 1% of Fountain residents.

Table 16: N.I. Census 1991: Economic Activity: Gobnascale and Fountain

Economic activity Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale
%
Fountain
%
Economically active males

329

113

67

57

Economically active females

159

84

33

43

Total economically active

488

197

100

100

As % of total population

37

42

. .

Table 17: N.I. Census 1991: Economic Activity and employment:
Gobnascale and Fountain

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale
as %
of tot. pop
Fountain
as %
of tot. pop
Economically active males in
employment


137


71


10


15

Economically active males out
of employment


192


42


15


9

Economically active single, widowed
or divorced females in employment


63


38


5


8

Economically active single, widowed
or divorced females out of employment


30


8


2


2

Economically active married
females in employment


40


36


3


8

Economically active married females
out of employment


26


2


2


<1

Table 18: N.I. Census 1991: Economic Activity and employment totals:
Gobnascale and Fountain

Employment totals Gobnascale Fountain
Total males in employment
137
71
Total females in employment
103
74
Total employed
240
145
As % of total population
18
31

In the survey, we asked respondents, in questions 38 and 39 about their experiences of unemployment. Tables 19 and 20 and the accompanying diagrams show their responses. Our survey showed no significant differences in the employment and unemployment rates in the sample. However, again, caution is necessary because of the high no response rate to both questions. Between 50%-60% of respondents made no reply on these questions. However, on both questions, employment and unemployment in the last five years, and the number of months unemployed in the last five years, there were no significant differences between the two areas. This tends to contradict the data extracted from the 1991 census, which indicates a difference in favour of the Fountain between the two areas in employment and unemployment rates. The low response rate in this survey makes it difficult to effectively challenge the census data. Although it is possible that the economic changes which have taken place since the 1991 census was taken have impacted on the employment rates in both areas, it is impossible to be conclusive here, for the reasons outlined.

Table 19 : Unemployed in last 5 years
Numbers and percentages in each community

.

Gobnascale

Fountain

Gobnascale%

Fountain%

Yes

39

20

15

17

No

73

37

28

31

No response/ not applicable


152


64


58


53

Total

264

121

100

100

GRAPH















Table 20 : Number of months unemployed in last five years
Numbers and percentages in each community

. Gobnascale Fountain Gobnascale% Fountain%
less than 6 months
6
4
2
3
6 months -1 year
5
2
2
2
over 1 but under 2 years
7
9
3
7
over 2 but under 3 years
9
4
3
3
over 3 but under 4 years
12
5
5
4
over 4 but under 5 years
8
4
3
3
5 years
50
14
19
12
No response/ not applicable
167
79
63
65
Total
264
121
100
100

It is perhaps noteworthy, that in table 20, of those who did reply to the question, the biggest cohort were those who had been employed for all of the previous five years. (19% in Gobnascale and 12% in the Fountain)

Generally, from both the census data, and to some extent from the survey data, the evidence suggests that there is an overall lower economic activity level in Gobnascale in comparison to the Fountain, and according to census data, this is accompanied by higher unemployment levels, and lower employment rates in Gobnascale. The survey data were more difficult to interpret because of the low response rate on some questions.

Income levels

We then went on to examine income levels in both areas. However, the data on income must be treated cautiously, due to the very high non-response level in both areas. Question 37 on the questionnaire asked respondents to indicate their income level on a range of income bands. Responses from both areas are shown in table 21 and in the following diagram. If the "no response" and "don't know" categories are aggregated, then 70% of respondents in Gobnascale and 63% in the Fountain did not make a response to this question. For those who did reply, there was a peak of responses in both areas in the £2,000-£4,999 response category and in the £5,000- £9,999 category, with less than 10% of respondents in both communities claiming to earn more than £9,999. There were no significant differences between the two ares in terms of income, although, as was stated earlier, these findings must be treated with caution, due to the poor response rate. However, in spite of differences in economic activity and employment rates, that there should be no significant difference in income levels between the two areas, would suggest that those in employment are in low wage employment, thus preventing increased employment from altering income levels in the Fountain area.

Table 21: Annual income
Numbers and percentages in each community

.

Gobnascale

Fountain

Gobnascale%

Fountain%

less than £2,000

8

5

3

4

£2,000-£4,999
(£40-£99 per week)

30

19

11

16

£5,000-£9,999
(£100-£189 per week)

25

16

9

13

£10,000-£14,999
(£190-£290 per week)

13

2

5

2

£15,000 or over
(more than £290 per week)

3

3

1

2

Don't know

9

6

3

5

No response/not applicable

176

70

67

58

Total

264

121

100

100

GRAPH










We also asked respondents about their sources of income in question 40, and their responses are shown in table 22. Again, there was a very poor response rate to this question, with between 50% and 84% of respondent making no response on questions. However, from the responses we did collect, it is perhaps noteworthy that a significant difference between the two areas was observed on all of the options listed. Again, a higher proportion (22%) of Fountain respondents indicated that they had income from employment (the Gobnascale rate was 13%). 40% of Gobnascale respondents and only 28% of Fountain respondents said that they received income support; similarly, more Gobnascale respondents than Fountain respondents were in receipt of child benefit (Gobnascale 31%: Fountain 14%); one parent benefit (Gobnascale 12%: Fountain 4%); sickness benefit (Gobnascale 7%: Fountain 4%); old age pension(Gobnascale 33 %: Fountain 26%). Fountain rates were higher for unemployment benefit (Gobnascale 6 %: Fountain 7 %); family credit (Gobnascale 3%: Fountain 4 %):;housing benefit (Gobnascale 11%: Fountain 15%); invalidity benefit (Gobnascale10%: Fountain 12%); pension from employment (Gobnascale 2%: Fountain 9%); and income from other sources (Gobnascale 5 %: Fountain 6%).

Generally, as with the other economic data, it is difficult to be conclusive because of the poor response rates. One would expect economic differences to exist between the two areas, even if only due to their different age structure or location. These differences are likely to be matters of pattern rather than absolute differences in income levels. Both areas experience high levels of economic deprivation and marginalisation, benefit dependence in both communities is high, and conditions, although they may be improving, have plenty of scope for more improvement.




Table 22: Source of income in the last month
Numbers and percentages in each community


.
YES
NO
DON'T
KNOW
NO
RESPONSE
.
. Gobna
scale
%
Foun
tain
%
Gobn
ascale
%
Foun
tain
%
Gobna
scale
%
Foun
tain
%
Gobna
scale
%
Foun
tain
%
Signific-
ance of
difference
Income from employment 13 22 9 21 1 0 77 56 .0002
unemployment benefit 6 7 13 31 1 0 80 62 .0004
income support 40 28 8 22 1 0 52 50 .0004
child benefit 31 14 6 24 1 0 62 62 .0
one parent benefit 12 4 13 28 1 0 74 68 .0004
family credit 3 4 13 30 1 0 83 66 .0009
social fund 1 1 14 31 1 0 84 68 .0005
statutory sick pay 1 1 14 31 1 0 84 69 .001
sickness benefit 7 4 14 31 1 0 78 65 .001
housing benefit 11 15 10 21 1 0 78 64 .01
invalidity benefit 10 12 14 26 1 1 76 61 .01
old age pension 33 26 13 27 1 0 73 47 0
pension from employment 2 9 14 27 1 0 83 64 .0004
other sources 5 6 13 28 1 0 81 66 .002

 

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