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Text and Research: Brendan Lynn ... Edited and Compiled: Martin Melaugh
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Surname: A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

| Rees | Reid | Reynolds | Richardson | Robinson,I. | Robinson,M. | Robinson,P. | Rodgers | Rose | Ross |

Rees, Merlyn (Life Peerage 1992) (b. 18 December 1920)
Politician; Labour Party MP; Secretary of State for Northern Ireland March 1974 - September 1976

Merlyn Rees was born in South Wales but later received his education at Harrow Weald Grammar School, Middlesex, and the London School of Economics. Rees then served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War before taking up a teaching position at his old school, Harrow Weald. After several failed attempts he was finally elected as a Labour MP in 1963 for the constituency of Leeds South (1963-83) and also went onto represent Morley and Leeds South (1983-92). Rees was to serve in a number of junior ministerial posts in the Labour governments of 1964 to 1970 including a spell at the Home Office (1968-70). This latter posting came at a time when this department was increasingly becoming involved in the affairs of Northern Ireland in the wake of the growing civil unrest after 1968. The experience he was to gain during this time, along with his own interest in Irish matters, led in 1972 to his appointment as Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1972-74). Then following the British general election of February 1974, which was to see the Labour Party returned to power, Rees entered the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1974-76).

From the outset however he was faced with an extremely difficult position. The campaign of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was, if anything, intensifying and this was matched by a significant growth in loyalist paramilitary activity. On the political front too Rees had major problems to deal with. The previous Conservative government in an attempt to return devolved power had initiated a series of discussions which at the end of 1973 had produced the Sunningdale Agreement. This proposed that a power-sharing executive should govern Northern Ireland along with a Council of Ireland to formalise relations between Belfast and Dublin. These developments had however angered many within the unionist community and they had used the general election of February 1974 to register their protests, winning eleven of the twelve Northern Ireland constituencies.

In May 1974 the nature of this campaign was intensified with the calling of a general strike organised by the Ulster Workers' Council (UWC), aimed at bringing down the settlement agreed at Sunningdale. With accusations of widespread intimidation Rees came under pressure to intervene and to use the British Army to try to ensure that essential services were maintained. However his military advisers warned against taking such an approach to end the UWC strike. In addition he harboured doubts whether the power-sharing Executive was robust enough to survive the crisis it faced. Finally, with those unionist members of the Executive threatening to resign, Rees decided in late May 1974 to re-introduce direct rule from Westminster. By July 1974 he decided to launch a fresh political initiative by proposing an elected Constitutional Convention to allow for Northern Ireland politicians to come up with an agreed settlement. This was to prove however an over optimistic assumption, with moderate nationalists still bitter by Rees's actions during the UWC strike and unionists opposed to any agreement based on the Sunningdale model. As a result the Constitutional Convention which was established May 1975 failed in its purpose and in March 1976 Rees was forced to formally dissolve it.

During this same period he was also faced with the increasing level of paramilitary activity in Northern Ireland from both loyalist and republican groups. To try to counteract this Rees was determined to press ahead with plans to reform security policy and the legal system, which soon became known as 'Ulsterisation'. In the midst of these changes he was able to take advantage of renewed contacts with the IRA to allow for it to call a ceasefire in February 1975. But the early promise engendered by this move soon disappeared and by the summer of 1975 the ceasefire had effectively broken down leading to a new upsurge in violence. Having served in Northern Ireland for a little over two years, in September 1976 Rees was made Home Secretary and held this post until the fall of the Labour government at the general election of May 1979. He never again held a cabinet position but remained an MP until announcing his retirement from active politics before the 1992 general election. Later in 1992 Rees received a life peerage and took his seat in the House of Lords as Lord Rees of Cilfynydd.

Book References:
Anderson, Don. (1994), Fourteen May Days: The Inside Story of the Loyalist Strike of 1974. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
Hennessey, Thomas. (1997), A History of Northern Ireland 1920-1996. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Ramsden, John. (ed.) (2002), The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century British Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rees, Merlyn. (1985), Northern Ireland: A Personal Perspective. London: Methuen.
[Entry by B.Lynn - 2 January 2003]


Reid, John (b. 8 May 1947)
Politician; Labour Party MP; Secretary of State for Northern Ireland January 2001 - October 2002

John Reid was educated at St Patrick's Senior Secondary School, Coatbridge, and Stirling University, later graduating with a D. Phil. in Economic History. Before entering politics Reid worked as research officer for the Labour Party (1979-83), as an adviser to the then party leader, Neil Kinnock (1983-85), and as Scottish organiser for the Trade Union Congress (TUC) (1985-87). In 1987 Reid was elected as the Labour MP for the constituency of Motherwell North (1987-97), and has also represented Hamilton North and Bellshill (1997-present). At Westminster he soon became regarded as a close ally of Tony Blair, who was to become leader of the Labour Party in 1994, and when Blair became British Prime Minister in 1997 Reid was rewarded with an appointment to the new government's junior ministerial team. His growing reputation was recognised in 1999 when he joined the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Scotland (1999-2001). He held this post until January 2001 when he succeeded Peter Mandleson as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (January 2001 - October 2002).

He arrived at a time when the 'Peace Process' was facing renewed difficulties with the institutions established under the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) under threat due to ongoing political difficulties. By the summer of 2001 the problem had escalated to the extent where the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) members of the power-sharing executive threatened to follow the example of their party leader and First Minister, David Trimble, and resign from their posts. In order to try to avoid such a situation Reid took part in negotiations between the British and Irish governments and the pro-GFA parties in Northern Ireland. But after these failed to produce a breakthrough, and to the anger of nationalists and republicans, he announced on 10 August 2001 the suspension of the institutions under the GFA for twenty-four hours. This move was to allow for devolution to be restored on 12 August 2001 and, because of a legal technicality, to permit for a further six week period of talks before Reid was required by law to call for elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly.

However this gamble also failed and in September 2001 he was again forced to order another temporary suspension in order to allow for a further round of talks. In October 2001 sufficient progress was considered to have been made to allow for Reid to reinstate the institutions in November 2001 with Trimble being returned as First Minister. In spite of this apparent success relations between the UUP and Sinn Féin remained strained with neither side completely confident of the others full commitment to the GFA. As a result the process was to enter a fresh period of crisis by the spring of 2002 and Reid was again faced by threats from the UUP to resign from the Executive without the completion of decommissioning by republicans. With the situation again beginning to deteriorate, in October 2002 Reid decided again to suspend the institutions of the GFA in order to try to avoid their complete collapse. This was to prove to be his last major decision relating to Northern Ireland as at the end of October 2002, following a cabinet reshuffle, he returned to London to assume the role of Chairman of the Labour Party and Cabinet Minister without Portfolio (2002-2003).

Web Sources:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/1135456.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2357217.stm
http://www.nio.gov.uk/issues/agreelinks/ptalks/drreid.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/1136839.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2088690.stm
http://www.labour.org.uk/maps/locinfo.phtml?ctid=2164&mnu=3
http://www.politicallinks.co.uk/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/539391.stm
[Entry written by B. Lynn - 2 January 2003]

Reynolds, Albert (b. 3 November 1932)
Politician; Fianna Fáil (FF) TD; Taoiseach (Prime Minister Republic of Ireland) 1992-94

Albert Reynolds was educated at Summerhill College, Sligo, but left school at an early age and worked in various jobs before pursuing a successful business career involving interests in his own pet-food company as well in numerous leisure activities. Reynolds first entered politics in the early 1970s when he became a member of Fianna Fáil (FF) and in 1974 was elected to Longford County Council (1974-79). He was then chosen as a FF candidate for the 1977 general election and was returned to the Dáil (1977-2002) where he soon became a close ally of Charles Haughey, who in 1979 was to become Taoiseach and leader of FF. Reynolds' reward came when he was appointed by Haughey as Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, and then Minister for Transport (1979-1981). After a brief spell as Minister for Industry and Energy in 1982, Reynolds and FF were then out of office until 1987 when the party again returned to government. On this occasion he was to serve as Minister for Industry and Commerce (1987-8) and then as Minister for Finance (1988-91). But in November 1991 he was sacked from the cabinet following his decision to support a leadership challenge against Haughey. Early in 1992 after Haughey was forced to resign as both Taoiseach and leader of FF, Reynolds was elected by the party as his replacement (1992-94). As the leader of a coalition government between FF and the Progressive Democrats (PD), Reynolds soon made it clear his unease with this arrangement and throughout 1992 relations between the two deteriorated rapidly. This eventually led to the collapse of the administration but after an indecisive general election in December 1992, he was to return as Taoiseach in January 1993 but this time at the head of a FF-Labour coalition (1993-94).

On first becoming Taoiseach in 1992 Reynolds took a close interest in Northern Ireland affairs. Over the next two years he worked closely with John Major, then British Prime Minister, with whom he had developed a close working relationship when both had attended meetings of European Community finance ministers. As a result Reynolds was prepared to accept a suspension in the working of the Anglo-Irish Agreement in order to allow for all-party talks to recommence in the spring of 1992. These however failed to produce any significant political breakthrough and as a result he was to become involved in developing an alternative strategy that was now beginning to emerge. This was based on a series of discussions between Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF) and John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP). In an effort to secure an end to paramilitary violence in the north of Ireland, Reynolds began to open up secret channels of communication between the Irish government and loyalist and republican paramilitaries. Furthermore Reynolds held a series of talks with John Major to try to secure an agreement between London and Dublin as to how the political progress could be made.

In December 1993 these discussions led to Reynolds and Major producing a joint communiqué, the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). When this initiative showed signs of stalling in 1994, he was quick to lay the responsibility for this on the British government and on elements of the republican movement as they debated the contents of the DSD. Behind the scenes however he was working along with others to try to secure an Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire and when this finally came in late August 1994 he warmly welcomed the move. Anxious to guarantee the republican movement's commitment to the peace process he then moved to involve them in the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation which was to meet in Dublin for the first time on 28 October 1994. A few weeks later however growing tensions with his coalition partners led to the Labour Party withdrawing their support and Reynolds was forced to resign as Taoiseach in December 1994. Soon after he also stepped down as leader of FF but continued to actively comment on political developments within Northern Ireland. In 1998 he announced his intention not to stand at the next (2002) general election.

Book References:
Collins, Stephen. (2000), The Power Game: Fianna Fáil Since Lemass. Dublin: O'Brien.
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
Hennessey, Thomas. (2000), The Northern Ireland Peace Process: Ending the Troubles. London: Gill & Macmillan.
McRedmond, Louis. (ed.) (1998), Modern Irish Lives: Dictionary of 20th-century Biography. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Web Sources:
http://www.fiannafail.ie/
http://www.rte.ie/culture/millennia/people/reynoldsalbert.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/1170144.stm
[Entry written by B. Lynn - 2 January 2003>

Richardson, ('Francis') Robert (Lieutenant-General) (b. 2 March 1929)
British Army Soldier; General Officer Commanding (GOC) Northern Ireland 1982-85

Robert Richardson had served in Northern Ireland during the 1970s and therefore had some experience of the problems he faced before in 1982 taking up the position of Army General Officer Commanding (GOC) Northern Ireland (1982-85). As well as dealing with the ongoing campaigns by Loyalist and Republican paramilitaries Richardson was anxious to reduce where possible the role of regular British Army units in favour of the police (then the Royal Ulster Constabulary; RUC).

Book References:
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
[Entry written by B.Lynn - 25 March 2003]

Robinson, Iris (b. 6 September 1949)
Politician; Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) MP 2001-present

Iris Robinson was born in Belfast and educated at Knockbreda Intermediate School and Castlereagh Technical College. Her involvement in politics began when she became a member of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and in 1989 was elected to Castlreagh Borough Council (1989-present). On two occasions in 1992 and 1995 Robinson has served as Mayor of the Borough. In the elections to the Northern Ireland Forum in May 1996 she was returned as a member for the Strangford constituency (1996-98) and followed this success in June 1998 when she again gained a seat in the new Northern Ireland Assembly (1998-present) for the same constituency. Her strong performance on both these occasions indicated she was building a strong political base in order to overturn the defeat she had suffered at the 1997 Westminster general election when she finished second in the Strangford seat to the sitting Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), John Taylor. In 2001 however Robinson was successfully returned as the new MP for Strangford and in doing so joined her husband Peter Robinson, then Deputy Leader of the DUP, in the House of Commons.

Book References:
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
Web Sources:
http://www.dup.org.uk/
http://www.politicallinks.co.uk/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/vote2001/candidates/candidates/5/54706.stm
http://www.ni-assembly.gov.uk/members/biogs/irobinson.htm
http://www.qub.ac.uk/cawp/UK%20bios/UK_bios_00s.htm#irobinson
[Entry written by B. Lynn - 2 January 2003]

Robinson, Mary (b. 21 December 1944)
Lawyer; Academic; President of the Republic of Ireland 1990-97
[Entry to be included at a later date]


Robinson, Peter (b. 29 December 1948)
Politician; Deputy Leader of Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) 1979-present; DUP MP 1979-present; Executive Minister November 1999 - July 2000 and November 2001 - October 2002

Peter Robinson was born in Belfast and educated at Annadale Grammar School and Castlereagh College of Further Education before beginning work as an estate agent. Robinson first became involved in politics when he joined the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and in 1975 became its full-time General Secretary (1975-79). Also in 1975 he contested his first election when he stood in the constituency of East Belfast for the DUP for a seat in the Constitutional Convention but he was unsuccessful. In 1977 he succeeded in winning a seat on Castlereagh Borough Council (1977-present) and since then has gone onto serve as the council's Deputy Mayor in 1978 and Mayor in 1985. Then at the 1979 Westminster general election he caused something of a political upset when he emerged to win the seat of East Belfast (1979-present) and soon after he was appointed as Deputy Leader of the DUP (1979-present). In this role he quickly established himself as a close ally of the Ian Paisley, then leader of the DUP, and participated in the party's campaigns against the Anglo-Irish talks of the early 1980s as well as its demands for a stronger security policy from the British government. The best example of this came with the formation by the DUP of the 'Third Force'.

With the establishment of the Northern Ireland Assembly at the end of 1982 Robinson was returned as a member representing East Belfast (1982-86) and took an active role in the proceedings of this body. In the aftermath of the signing of the Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) in 1985 he was at the forefront of unionist opposition to the AIA and in January 1986 joined with other Unionist MPs in resigning their seats. The subsequent by-elections were then used as a means to highlight the depth of unease within unionism to the AIA. Later in August 1986 in another anti-AIA protest he was arrested when several hundred loyalists invaded the border village of Clontibret, County Monaghan, in order to try to highlight their claims concerning the lack of security along the border. After a brief trial he was found guilty of unlawful assembly and fined 15,000 (Irish Punts). The embarrassment caused by this incident did not however deter his involvement in further opposition to the AIA and throughout 1987 he continued to take part in the campaign against it. On occasions this led to him being imprisoned in Northern Ireland for refusing to pay fines which had imposed on him by the courts for his participation in a number of different protests. As well he also took up a role in the 'Ulster Resistance' when it was formed in November 1986 as an alternative means to organise opposition to the AIA.

As the political stalemate caused by the AIA began to ease, Robinson joined the DUP's delegation at the all-party talks of held during 1991 to 1992. Although anxious to see devolved powers returned to Northern Ireland along with his party colleagues, he made it clear that such a prospect would not be accepted at any price. As a result these discussions broke down because of the lack of agreement between Unionist opinion, including the DUP, with the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and the Irish government. With the emergence of the 'Peace Process' in Northern Ireland in the mid-1990s Robinson was vocal in his opposition to it, particularly with the Downing Street Declaration in December 1994. Elected in May 1996 to the Northern Ireland Forum (1996-98), again for East Belfast, he was part of the DUP's delegation to a fresh round of all-party talks called by the British and Irish governments in June 1996. A year later however in July 1997 when it became clear that republicans were about to join the talks process the DUP withdrew in protest and never returned.

After the signing of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) in April 1998 he actively campaigned for a 'No' vote in the May 1998 referendum. After his election to the new Northern Ireland Assembly in June 1998 (June 1998-present) Robinson emerged as his party's chief strategist in its continuing opposition to the GFA. As such he was widely credited for the DUP's strong performance at the Westminster and local government elections of 2001. In addition as part of this strategy against the GFA, the DUP has also decided to engage in a policy of rotating its members on the Northern Ireland Executive. This has led to him serving as Minister for Regional Development on two separate occasions, from December 1999 - July 2000 and November 2001 - October 2002.

Book References:
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
Hennessey, Thomas. (1997), A History of Northern Ireland 1920-1996. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Hennessey, Thomas. (2000), The Northern Ireland Peace Process: Ending the Troubles. London: Gill & Macmillan.
McRedmond, Louis. (ed.) (1998), Modern Irish Lives: Dictionary of 20th-century Biography. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Web Sources:
http://www.stratagem-ni.org/
http://www.politicallinks.co.uk/POLITICS2/BIOG/MP_BIOGS/bio.asp?id=042
http://news.bbc.co.uk/vote2001/hi/english/key_people/newsid_1179000/1179410.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/vote2001/candidates/candidates/0/04209.stm
http://www.ni-assembly.gov.uk/members/biogs/probinson.htm
http://www.dup.org.uk/
[Entry written by B. Lynn - 2 January 2003]


Rodgers, Bríd (b. 20 February 1935)
Politician; Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP) MLA; Deputy Leader of the SDLP 2001-2004; Executive Minister November 1999 - October 2002

Bríd Rodgers was born in Gweedore, County Donegal, and later educated at St. Louis Convent, Monaghan, and University College Dublin from where she graduated with a BA in Modern Languages and a Higher Diploma in Education. Rodgers then pursued a career as a teacher and settled in Lurgan, County Armagh, in the 1960s. Her interest in politics led to an involvement in the civil rights movement as spokesperson for the Lurgan Civil Rights Association. With the formation of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) in 1970 Rodgers soon became a member. Within a short period of time she had established herself within the party's hierarchy and in 1978 became the party's Chairperson (1978-81). This was followed in 1981 when Rodgers took on the role of General Secretary of the SDLP (1981-83). From 1983 to 1987 she sat in the Irish Senate and also represented the party as a local councillor on Craigavon Borough Council (1985-93). During this time she had also been part of the SDLP's negotiating team at the all-party talks over the period 1991 to 1992 and acted as party spokesperson on women, culture and parades.

In the wake of the peace process in Northern Ireland, Rodgers was part of the SDLP's delegation to the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation in Dublin (1994-95). She was then elected as a member of the Northern Ireland Forum in May 1996 for the constituency of Upper Bann (1996-98) and went onto act as Chair of the party's negotiating team to the multi-party talks that produced the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) in April 1998. In June 1998 Rodgers was returned to the new Northern Ireland Assembly (1998-present) again representing Upper Bann. After much delay, the establishment of the power-sharing Executive in November 1999, saw her appointed as Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development and she held this post until the suspension of the institutions of the GFA in October 2002.

At the Westminster election of June 2001, after three unsuccessful attempts to win the seat of Upper Bann, Rodgers contested West Tyrone for the SDLP against a strong challenge from Sinn Féin (SF). After, at times, a bitter contest she found herself again as the runner-up with the SF candidate becoming the new MP for West Tyrone. A couple of months later in November 2001 Rodgers gained some consolation when she was elected as the new Deputy Leader of the SDLP (November 2001 - 2004). At the end of 2002 she announced she would not be standing again for election to the Northern Ireland Assembly and in February 2004 stood down as deputy leader of the SDLP.

Book References:
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
Hennessey, Thomas. (2000), The Northern Ireland Peace Process: Ending the Troubles. London: Gill & Macmillan.
Murray, Gerard. (1998), John Hume and the SDLP: Impact and Survival in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.
Web Sources:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/542337.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/vote2001/candidates/candidates/5/59607.stm
http://www.sdlp.ie/
http://www.stratagem-ni.org/
http://www.ni-assembly.gov.uk/members/biogs/brodgers.htm
[Entry by B. Lynn 2 January 2003; updated 10 June 2004]


Rose, Paul (b. 26 December 1935)
Politician; Labour Party MP 1964-79; Chairman of Campaign for Democracy in Ulster (CDU) 1965-73
[Entry to be included at a later date]

Ross, ('Willie') William (b. 4 February 1936)
Politician; Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) MP 1974-2001

Willie Ross was first elected at the Westminster general election of February 1974 as an Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) for the constituency of Londonderry (1974-83) and later went onto represent East Londonderry (1983-2001). From his entry into politics in the 1970s Ross was steadfastly opposed to any involvement by the Irish government in the affairs of Northern Ireland and therefore was at the fore in the campaigns against the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement as well as the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA). With the resignation of James Molyneaux, then leader of UUP, in 1995 he stood in the subsequent leadership contest but was unsuccessful. With the start of all party talks in September 1997 he opposed the decision of David Trimble, then leader UUP, to participate in these given the presence of Sinn Féin (SF). Not surprisingly Ross then became a prominent critic of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) which was to be signed in April 1998. Along with other dissidents in the UUP during the referendum campaign on the GFA in May 1998 he called for a 'No' vote. Over the next few years he maintained his opposition to the GFA and became a bitter critic of the policy followed by his party leader towards the full implementation of the GFA. Then at the 2001 general election, to the surprise of some political commentators, Ross lost his seat to his Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) opponent, Gregory Campbell.

Book References:
Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
McDonald, Henry. (2000), Trimble. London: Bloomsbury.
Web Sources:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/vote2001/candidates/candidates/4/44705.stm
http://www.rte.ie/news/features/westminster_election/constituencies/east_londonderry.html
[Entry written by B.Lynn - 26 March 2003]


Notes:
The information has been compiled from numerous primary and secondary sources.
The best general sources for additional information are:
  • Elliott, Sydney. and Flackes, W.D. (1999), Northern Ireland: A Political Directory, 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.
  • McRedmond, Louis. (ed.) (1998), Modern Irish Lives: Dictionary of 20th-century Biography. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
  • Ramsden, John. (ed.) (2002), The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century British Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    For related and background information see also:
  • The list of acronyms associated with 'the Troubles'
  • The glossary of terms related to the conflict
  • The abstracts on prominent organisations
  • The chronology of the conflict

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