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A Draft Chronology of the Conflict - 1994



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Text and Research: Martin Melaugh
Material is added to this site on a regular basis - information on this page may change

A Chronology of the Conflict - 1968 to the Present 1968 1969
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
2000 2001 2002 2003            

The following is a draft chronology of the conflict for the year 1994. For additional material on the peace process see the list of source documents.

1994 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Sources Notes

1994

January 1994

Saturday 1 January 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a 11 firebombs in shops and other premises in and around Belfast. The Linen Hall Library was one of the targets and was slightly damaged in the attack. [The library contains the Northern Ireland Political Collection among which are thousands of ephemeral items produced by Sinn Féin (SF).]
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), issued a statement stating that they retained the right to respond militarily in 1994.

Sunday 2 January 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out a gun attack on the home of Alex Maskey, then a Sinn Féin (SF) councillor. Approximately 30 shots were fired at the house but no one was hurt.
item mark In an interview in the Sunday Business Post (a Dublin based newspaper) Martin McGuinness, then Vice-President of Sinn Féin (SF), said that anything less than a British withdrawal from Northern Ireland would be unacceptable.
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), called for ‘demilitarisation’ in Northern Ireland.

Monday 3 January 1994
item mark Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, said that troop levels would be reviewed after a cessation of violence but the British government would not "join the ranks of the persuaders" for a particular outcome.

Tuesday 4 January 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), sent two parcel bombs to Sinn Féin (SF) and An Phoblacht (Republican News) offices in Dublin. Two members of a bomb disposal team were injured when one of the devices exploded.
item mark At a Fair Employment Tribunal a Catholic woman was awarded damages of £25,000 for persistent sectarian harassment at a security firm.

Wednesday 5 January 1994
item mark At the Northern Ireland Office (NIO) Michael Ancram became the Political Development Minister, and Tim Smith took over the environment and economy briefs from Robert Atkins.
item mark The National Committee on American Foreign Policy invited the leaders of the main political parties in Northern Ireland to attend a conference in New York. The invitations included one to Gerry Adams. [On 29 January 1994 a visa to enter the USA was given to Adams.]

Thursday 6 January 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), injured a Catholic man (21) in a gun attack in west Belfast.

Friday 7 January 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on a joint Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and British Army patrol in the Andersonstown area of Belfast.
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), wrote to John Major, then British Prime Minister, seeking clarification of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State, appeared to rule out clarification of the DSD for SF because he said clarification would lead to negotiations. [On 20 January 1994 SF got a reply from Major's office saying there could be no re-negotiation of the DSD.]
item mark The Standing Advisory Commission on Human Rights (SACHR) called again for a bill of rights for Northern Ireland.

Saturday 8 January 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out a rocket and gun attack on a pub on the Falls Road in Belfast and injured three people.
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said in an interview with the Irish News (a Belfast based newspaper), that the ‘Republican struggle’ could go on for another 25 years. He also criticised statements made by Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, since the publication of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). Mayhew had said that talks between the British government and SF would concern the decommissioning of IRA weapons.

Monday 10 January 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said that the Irish government would provide continuing clarification of the Downing Street Declaration.

Tuesday 11 January 1994
item mark The Irish government announced that the broadcasting ban under section 31 of the Broadcasting Act would be lifted in the Republic of Ireland. [This ban had prevented Sinn Féin (SF) from gaining access to the Irish media. The ban was ended on 19 January 1994.]
item mark Baroness Denton was appointed to the Northern Ireland Office (NIO) to replace the Earl of Arran. [Denton was the first woman to serve as minister in the NIO.]

Friday 14 January 1994
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), stated in an Irish Times (a Dublin based newspaper) article that he could not move without clarification of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). John Major, then British Prime Minister, told John Hume, then leader of the SDLP, that the DSD spoke for itself.

Saturday 15 January 1994
item mark Edward Kennedy, together with three other Irish-American Senators, appealed to Bill Clinton, then President of the USA, to grant a visa to Gerry Adams, then President of SF.

Sunday 16 January 1994
item mark The Sunday Independent (an Dublin based newspaper) contained a story about an alleged plan of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) to carry out ‘ethnic cleansing’. The plan involved the repartition of Northern Ireland followed by the forced removal of Catholics from the remaining area.

Monday 17 January 1994
item mark Sinn Féin (SF) issued a document, 'Setting the Record Straight', which contracted British government accounts of contacts between SF and representatives of the government. [The British government was later to retract its account of the meetings.(?)]

Tuesday 18 January 1994
item mark Sinn Féin (SF) launched a ‘peace commission’ which was set up to hear opinions on the future of the region. [The first session was held in Derry on 27 January 1994.]

Wednesday 19 January 1994
Irish Broadcast Ban Lifted

item mark At midnight the broadcasting ban under section 31 of the Broadcasting Act was lifted in the Republic of Ireland. [This allowed Sinn Féin (SF) access to the Irish media. The British broadcasting ban was ended on 16 September 1994.]

Thursday 20 January 1994
item mark The private secretary to John Major, then British Prime Minister, replied to a letter from Gerry Adams, then President of SF, to state that there "can be no question of renegotiation" of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD).

Sunday 23 January 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said he would give clarification of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD) to anyone who asked for it.

Monday 24 January 1994
item mark Incendiary devices that had been planted by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), were found at a school in Dundalk, Republic of Ireland, and at a postal sorting office in Dublin.

Tuesday 25 January 1994
item mark The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) announced that it would adopt a 'wait and see' attitude towards the Downing Street Declaration (DSD).

Thursday 27 January 1994
Two Catholics Killed by Loyalists
item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) shot dead Cormac Mac Dermott (31), a Catholic civilian, and wounded his wife in a gun attack in Ballymena, County Antrim. item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), shot dead John Desmond (51), a Catholic civilian, in his home in the Ormeau Road, Belfast. item mark The RUC shot dead a Protestant civilian during an attempted robberin in County Down.
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item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted three incendiary devices in stores in Oxford Street, London.

Friday 28 January 1994
item mark An Irish Republican Army (IRA) incendiary device exploded in a store in Oxford Street, London. A second device was defused.

Saturday 29 January 1994
US Visa Given to Adams

item mark Bill Clinton, then President of the United States of America (USA), ordered that Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), should be given a 'limited duration' visa to enter the USA to address a peace conference. [The decision was supported by the National Security Council and Irish-American Senators but was taken against the advice of the State Department and the British government.]
item mark An Irish Republican Army (IRA) incendiary device was defused in London.

February 1994

Tuesday 1 February 1994
item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) carried out a bomb attack on the home of a Catholic family in Portadown, County Armagh. An Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer was injured in the explosion. item mark There was an Irish Republican Army (IRA) mortar attack on a British Army (BA) observation post at Cloghoge, County Armagh.
item mark David McGaughey (Rev.), then Presbyterian moderator-designate, said that he would not take part in ecumenical services.
item mark The National Committee on American Foreign Policy was address in New York by John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), and John Alderdice, then leader of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI). [The whole of Adams' visit to the USA was a major publicity coup for SF.]

Wednesday 2 February 1994
item mark Before leaving New York Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said he would not disappoint those who had "stuck their neck out" to secure his visa. Douglas Hurd, then British Foreign Secretary, speaking in the House of Commons described Adams as a "failed politician".

Thursday 3 February 1994
item mark Mark Sweeney (31), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), on the outskirts of Newtownards, County Down.
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item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) carried out a gun attack in west Belfast on a minibus used by relatives of Republican prisoners. The driver of the minibus and a woman passerby were both injured in the attack. item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a small Semtex bomb outside the home of an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) Assistant Chief Constable in Derry.
item mark On his return to Ireland from the United States of America (USA) Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), was confronted in Dublin airport by a protest by victims of IRA violence. Adams said that he thought this was "the final phase" of the conflict.

Monday 7 February 1994
item mark Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of Sate, paid a visit to Derry and stated that inter-party talks were on target.

Wednesday 9 February 1994
item mark Amnesty International published a report which claimed that there was "mounting evidence" of collusion between the security forces and Loyalist paramilitaries. The RUC said that the claims were "utter nonsense".

Thursday 10 February 1994
McGlinchey Killed
item mark Dominic McGlinchey, former leader of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA), was shot dead by three gunmen in Drogheda, Republic of Ireland. [It is not clear which organisation was responsible for the killing.]
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Friday 11 February 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out gun attacks on the homes of two Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) members. In one attack the son of one SDLP member was shot and wounded.
item mark James Molyneaux, then leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), said that the Downing Street Declaration (DSD) had failed and that an internal settlement for Northern Ireland should now be sought by the British government.

Saturday 12 February 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out rocket attack on the headquarters of Sinn Féin (SF) in west Belfast.

Thursday 17 February 1994
RUC Officer and Catholic Civilian Killed
item mark William Beacom (30), an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, was killed and two other officers injured when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a rocket attack on a police Land Rover in the Markets area of Belfast.
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item mark Sean McParland (55), a Catholic civilian, was mortally wounded in a gun attack carried out by the Red Hand Commando (RHC), a cover name used by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), while he was baby-sitting his four grandchildren in north Belfast. He died on 24 February 1994.
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Friday 18 February 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out a gun attack injuring three workmen outside the headquarters of Sinn Féin (SF) in west Belfast.

Saturday 19 February 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), held a meeting with John Major, then British Prime Minister, in Downing Street, London.

Sunday 20 February 1994
item mark John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), called on the British government to provide Sinn Féin (SF) with clarification of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). item mark Dick Spring, then Tánaiste, said that he believed clarification had already been provided.

Monday 21 February 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a mortar attack on an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Beragh, County Tyrone. The attack caused extensive damage to the police station and to the surrounding village.
item mark In a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) television programme Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State, confirmed that two "unauthorised" meetings had taken place between representatives of the IRA and British officials in 1993. However, Mayhew stated that no official had been given permission to say that Britain intended to withdraw eventually from Northern Ireland.

Thursday 24 February 1994
item mark Jack Smyth (23), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) as he worked as a doorman at a public house on the Lisburn Road, Belfast.
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Saturday 26 February 1994
item mark Sinn Féin (SF) held its Ard Fheis in Dublin, Republic of Ireland (??). Gerry Adams, then President of SF, addressed the conference and said that the Downing Street Declaration (DSD) was a significant departure from previous policy by the British in its attitude towards Ireland. He added: "... does anyone really expect the IRA to cease its activities so that British civil servants can discuss with Sinn Féin the surrender of IRA weapons after we have been "decontaminated"?" (Irish News, 28 February 1994)

Monday 28 February 1994
item mark The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) published its plans for administrative devolution. Party representatives said that the UUP would not take part in any future three-strand talks process.

March 1994

Tuesday 1 March 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, completed a two-day visit to Washington, USA. [The visit was reported as an attempt to repair damage to Anglo-American relations following the decision to grant a visa to Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF).

Wednesday 2 March 1994
item mark The European Commission recommended continuation of its 15 million ecu support for the International Fund for Ireland (IFI).

Friday 4 March 1994
item mark Hugh Annesley, then Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), was subpoenaed to produce the Stalker report in order to assist the 'shoot to kill' inquest.

Wednesday 9 March 1994
First IRA Mortar Attack on Heathrow
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a mortar attack on the perimeter of Heathrow Airport. Although the five mortars fell inside the airport grounds none of them exploded. The mortars were fired from a car parked near to the perimeter fence. [Police and security services searched the area looking for other vehicles containing mortars but found none. However, this turned out to be the first in a series of three carefully planned attacks on the airport; the others happened on 11 March 1994 and 13 March 1994.]
item mark The House of Commons voted to set up a select committee on Northern Ireland affairs. The Commons also voted to renew the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA).

Thursday 10 March 1994
item mark James Haggan (33), an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) while he was off-duty at a greyhound track in north Belfast.
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Friday 11 March 1994
Second IRA Mortar Attack on Heathrow
item mark Francis Brown (38), a Catholic civilian, was killed by a bomb planted by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) in Portadown, County Armagh.
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item mark In a second attack on Heathrow Airport the Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched four mortars over the perimeter fence. None of the mortars exploded. A Royal Air Force plane with the Queen on board landed at the airport while the security forces were conducting a search of the terminal. [There had been a previous attack on 9 March 1994. The mortars were fired from a wooded area close to the perimeter fence. The police carried out a further search of wooded areas but discovered no further mortars. However, there was another attack on the airport on 13 March 1994.]

Sunday 13 March 1994
Third IRA Mortar Attack on Heathrow
item mark Heathrow Airport was closed for two hours following a third Irish Republican Army (IRA) mortar attack. None of the mortars exploded. [The mortars had been concealed underground and were fired from a wooded area close to the perimeter fence. There had been two previous attacks on 9 March 1994 and 11 March 1994.]
item mark The leadership of the IRA issued a statement which said that their "positive and flexible" attitude to the peace process was "abiding and enduring".

Monday 14 March 1994
item mark Louis Blom-Cooper, then independent commissioner for Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) holding stations, called for the introduction of video and audio recording of interrogations.

Wednesday 16 March 1994
item mark John Wheeler, then NIO Security Minister, turned down a request from the Bloody Sunday Justice Group for a new inquiry into the killings in Derry on 30 January 1972. [A new Inquiry was eventually announced on 29 January 1998.]

Thursday 17 March 1994
item mark Bill Clinton, then President of the USA, attended a St Patrick's Day conference in Washington and called upon the Irish Republican Army (IRA) to "lay down their arms".
item mark The Ulster Unionist Council (UUC) held its annual general meeting. James Molyneaux, then leader of the UUP, addressed the meeting and rejected any proposals for north-south political institutions as part of a political settlement.

Sunday 20 March 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) fired a mortar at a British Army (BA) base in Crossmaglen, south Armagh, causing an army helicopter to crash.

Monday 21 March 1994
item mark Loyalists set alight the car belonging to Joe Hendron, then Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) MP, which was parked outside his south Belfast home.
item mark It was reported that there were angry exchanges between Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), and John Major, then British Prime Minister, at 10 Downing Street, London. [There were also reports that Paisley together with some of his colleagues temporarily locked themselves into a toilet at No.10.]

Thursday 24 March 1994
item mark John Fee, then a Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) councillor, was severely beaten by Republicans outside his home in Crossmaglen, south Armagh.
item mark The Northern Ireland Affairs Select Committee was constituted with 6 Conservative members, two Labour, two Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), one Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), one Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and one Ulster Popular Unionist Party (UPUP) member. James Kilfedder (Sir) was announced as the chairman.

Friday 25 March 1994
item mark Mary Robinson, then Irish President, visited Newry, Craigavon, and Derry.

Tuesday 29 March 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), launched a rocket and gun attack on a Sinn Féin (SF) office on the Falls Road, west Belfast.
item mark A report published by the Fair Employment Commission (FEC) suggested that Catholic under-representation in the workplace was 5 per cent compared to 7 per cent in 1990.

Wednesday 30 March 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) announced that there would be a three day ceasefire from 6 April to 8 April 1994. During a visit to Northern Ireland John Major, then British Prime Minister, said that what people wanted was a "permanent end to violence".
item mark The appeal by Lee Clegg, a private in the Parachute Regiment, against his murder conviction was dismissed by Brian Hutton (Sir), then Lord Chief Justice. [However, Clegg was released from prison on 3 July 1995 having served two years of a life sentence for the murder of Karen Reilly (16) on 30 September 1990.]

Thursday 31 March 1994
item mark The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), carried out two gun attacks on Catholics. Two Catholic men were injured in Belfast and a third was injured in Antrim.
item mark Cahal Daly, then Cardinal, said that the announcement of an Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire was an indication that Republicans were sincere in their desire for peace.

April 1994

Wednesday 6 April 1994
IRA Ceasefire

item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) called a three-day ceasefire (Wednesday 6 April 1994 to Friday 8 April 1994).

Thursday 7 April 1994
Protestant Woman Killed by Loyalists
item mark Margaret Wright (31), a Protestant civilian, was badly beaten by a group of men, and then finally shot four times in the head, in a Loyalist band-hall in the Donegal Road area of Belfast. [She had been invited to the hall on the evening of 6 April 1994 and was then killed by Loyalists who believed that she was a Catholic. There was strong condemnation of the killing in Protestant areas. Ian Hamiltion (21), a Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) member, was shot dead by the UVF on 12 April 1994 because they claimed he had admitted killing Wright. William Elliott (32), a member of the Red Hand Commando (RHC), a group associated with the UVF, was also shot dead on 28 September 1995 for his alleged part in the killing of Wright.]
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Saturday 9 April 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a number of attacks on security forces in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, Newtownbutler, County Fermanagh, and in Belfast. The attacks marked the end of a three-day IRA ceasefire.

Tuesday 12 April 1994
item mark Ian Hamiltion (21), a Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) member, was shot dead by the UVF because they claimed he had admitted killing Margaret Wright on 7 April 1994.

Thursday 14 April 1994
item mark Teresa Clinton (34), a Catholic Civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), during a gun attack on her home, off Ormeau Road, Belfast. Her husband had been a former Sinn Féin (SF) election candidate.
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item mark The UFF carried out another gun attack and wounded of two Catholic civilians.
The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) offered to clarify, for the benefit of SF, specific points related to the Downing Street Declaration (DSD).

Saturday 16 April 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), addressed a Fianna Fáil (FF) conference in Dublin. He said he envisaged that, in the event of a united Ireland, the government would be comprised of 30 per cent representation from Northern Ireland.

Wednesday 20 April 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed Gregory Pollock (23), a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, and wounded two other officers, in an attack on a RUC mobile patrol in Derry. Pollock was killed when a horizontal mortar bomb struck the vehicle he was travelling in on Spencer Road, Waterside, Derry.

Thursday 21 April 1994
item mark Brian Hutton (Sir), then Northern Ireland Lord Chief Justice, quashed the conviction of Paul Hill for the murder of a former British soldier in 1974. Hutton declared that the conviction was "unsafe and unsatisfactory".

Sunday 24 April 1994
Two Protestants Killed by IRA
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot dead Alan Smith (40) and John McCloy (28), both Protestant civilians, while they were sitting in a stationary car, on Main Street, Garvagh, County Derry. [The IRA alleged that Smith was a member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) but this was denied by family and friends.]
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Monday 25 April 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot dead Francis Rice (23), a Catholic Civilian, beside Half Moon Lake, off Suffolk Road, Suffolk, Belfast. The IRA alleged that Rice was a criminal and drug dealer. [This was the first of a series of killings of alleged drug dealers over the next couple of years. Many of these killings were claimed by 'Direct Action Against Drugs' (DAAD) which was believed to be a cover name (pseudonym) used by the IRA.]
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item mark The IRA carried out 'punishment shootings' on 16 men whom it alleged were drug dealers. A number of other men were ordered to leave the country.

Tuesday 26 April 1994
item mark Joseph McCloskey (52), a Catholic Civilian, was killed by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), at his home, Lepper Street, New Lodge, Belfast.

Wednesday 27 April 1994
item mark Gerald Evans (43), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) at his shop, Northcott Shopping Centre, Ballyclare Road, Glengormley, near Belfast. item mark Paul Thompson (25), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), while he sat in a stationary taxi, outside house, Springfield Park, Ballymurphy, Belfast.
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Thursday 28 April 1994
item mark James Brown (47), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) at his shop, Garmoyle Street, Docks, Belfast. item mark Eric Smyth (40), an ex-member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR), was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside his home, Salters Grange Road, near Armagh.
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item mark Mitchell McLaughlin, then Sinn Féin (SF) chairman, was given a United States visa to allow him into the USA to speak at a conference in Cleveland, Ohio.
item mark The Iranian Chargé d'Affaires was summoned to the Foreign Office, London, to explain claims that the government in Iran was planning to supply the Irish Republican Army (IRA) with arms and money.

May 1994

Wednesday 4 May 1994
item mark The first report of the Independent Assessor of Military Complaints Procedures in Northern Ireland showed that 606 complaints had been made during 1993. However, only one soldier had been severely reprimanded as the result of a complaint.

Sunday 8 May 1994
item mark Rose Anne Mallon (76), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) at her relatives home, Cullenramer Road, Greystone, near Dungannon, County Tyrone. [On 27 July 1994 a neighbour discovered in a nearby field two security force surveillance cameras pointing at the house where the shooting took place. There were subsequent claims of collusion between the security forces and Loyalist paramilitaries.]
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Wednesday 11 May 1994
item mark Following a meeting between representatives of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the police agreed to erect a 20 feet high wall (peaceline) to separate the Springfield and Springmartin areas of Belfast.

Thursday 12 May 1994
item mark Martin Bradley (23), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), at his relatives home, Crumlin Road, Ardoyne, Belfast.
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Friday 13 May 1994
item mark Fred Anthony (38), a Protestant civilian, was killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) using a booby trap bomb attached to his car. Anthony's wife and two children were injured in the explosion which happened as the car travelled along Hill Street, Lurgan, County Armagh. Anthony had been employed as a civilian cleaner by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).
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Saturday 14 May 1994
item mark David Wilson (27), a British Army (BA) soldier, was killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during a bomb attack on a permanent Vehicle Checkpoint, Castleblaney Road, Keady, County Armagh.
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Monday 16 May 1994
item mark A statement was released by Downing Street which indicated that a full acceptance of the Downing Street Declaration (DSD) was not a necessary condition for Sinn Féin (SF) involvement in talks.

Tuesday 17 May 1994
Two Catholics Killed by UVF
item mark Eamon Fox (42) and Gary Convie (24), both Catholic civilians, were shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) at a building site on North Queen Street, in the Tiger Bay area of Belfast.
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item mark A review of the working of the Northern Ireland (Emergency Provisions) Act recommended that police interviews should be taped.

Wednesday 18 May 1994
Two Catholics Killed by UVF
item mark Gavin McShane (17) and Shane McArdle (17), both Catholic civilians, were killed when the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) carried out a gun attack on people in a taxi depot on Lower English Street, Armagh.
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Thursday 19 May 1994
item mark The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) published a 21 page British government response to Sinn Féin (SF) questions that arose from the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). SF had submitted a series of 20 questions via the Irish government. item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), described the clarification as "comprehensive and positive".

Friday 20 May 1994
item mark There was serious rioting in Protestant areas of Belfast following the appearance in Belfast Magistrates' Court of a man accused of 'directing the activities' of the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA).

Saturday 21 May 1994
item mark Members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) abducted and then shot dead Reginald McCollum (19), an off-duty member of the Royal Irish Regiment (RIR). His body was found in a field beside Mullaghcreevie housing estate, Armagh. item mark Martin Doherty (35), a member of the IRA, was shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) as he attempted to stop a bomb attack on The Widow Scallans Bar, Pearse Street, Dublin, where a Sinn Féin (SF) function was taking place. Another man was seriously wounded in the attack.
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Monday 23 May 1994
item mark Nigel Smith (19), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at his place of work in the Anderson and McAuley building, Castle Street, Belfast.
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item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) carried out a bomb attack on the Sinn Féin (SF) office in Belfast City Hall. The explosion injured two workmen.

Monday 30 May 1994
item mark At a press conference in Belfast, Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), described James Molyneaux, then leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), as "a Judas Iscariot". [On Wednesday 1 June 1994, Molyneaux said that the remark was "a shattering blow" to Unionist unity.]

June 1994

Wednesday 1 June 1994
item mark Dick Spring, then Tánaiste (deputy Irish Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs), told the Daíl that the key to Sinn Féin (SF) joining political talks was a permanent cessation of violence. He said there would also have to be verification of the handing over of weapons.

Thursday 2 June 1994
25 Security Personnel Killed in Helicopter Crash
item mark An Royal Air Force (RAF) Chinook helicopter travelling from Northern Ireland to Scotland crashed in fog into a hillside on the Mull of Kintyre, Argyll, Scotland, killing all 29 people on board. Of those killed, 10 were senior officers in Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) Special Branch, 6 were senior officers in the Security Service (MI5), and 9 were senior officers in British Army (BA) intelligence. The 4 members of the RAF crew were also killed. The 25 security personnel had been travelling to a security conference in Inverness. [In June 1995 an RAF report blamed pilot error for the crash. An Inquiry in March 1996 concluded that there was no evidence of pilot error. In May 1998 the House of Commons Select Committee on Defence found "no compelling evidence" that design failure was responsible for the accident.]

Wednesday 8 June 1994
item mark A small incendiary device was found in a snooker hall in Trim, County Meath, Republic of Ireland, following a statement by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), that firebombs had been planted in the Republic.

Thursday 9 June 1994
item mark The body of Maurice O'Kane (50) Catholic civilian, was found shot at his workplace, Harland and Wolff shipyard, Harbour Estate, Belfast. The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) claimed responsibility for the killing.
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item mark European Elections were held in Northern Ireland. [When the votes were counted a few days later Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), narrowly topped the poll ahead of John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP). Jim Nicholson, member of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), took the third seat.]
item mark Seán Hick, Paul Hughes, and Donna Maguire, were acquitted in a court in Germany of the murder of a British Army (BA) officer in Dortmund in 1990. Hick and Hughes were released but Maguire was held on other charges. [On 28 June 1995 Magure was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment for the bombing of a BA barracks in Osnabruck, Germany, in 1989. She was later released because of the number of years held on remand.]

Friday 10 June 1994
item mark Two thousand workers from the Harland and Wolff shipyard stopped work for a period in protest at the killing at the shipyard on 9 June 1994.

Wednesday 15 June 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), sent a letter containing 'clarification' of the Downing Street Declaration to Gary McMichael, then leader of the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP). The letter stated: "We do not seek to impose constitutional change by stealth or coercion, whether it be a united Ireland, or joint sovereignty or joint authority. What we seek is a new accommodation between the two traditions on this island ..." (Belfast Telegraph, 24 June 1994).

Thursday 16 June 1994
Three UVF Members Shot by INLA
item mark The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) carried out a gun attack on a group of Loyalists on the Shankill Road, west Belfast. Two members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) were shot. One died at the scene, and the second died on 9 July 1994. A Protestant civilian was also mortally injured and died on 17 June 1984. A fourth man was injured in the attack. [The UVF carried out a series of 'revenge' attacks over the coming days and killed 9 people - 7 Catholic civilians and 2 Protestant civilians mistakenly believed to be Catholics.]
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Friday 17 June 1994
Three Men Shot by UVF

item mark Gerald Brady (27), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). Brady was a taxi driver and was found shot in his car, Blackthorn Park, Sunnylands, Carrickfergus, County Antrim. item mark Cecil Dougherty (30), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by the UVF) during a gun attack on a workers hut, Rushpark, off Shore Road, Newtownabbey, County Antrim. He was assumed to have been a Catholic. In the same attack William Corrigan (32), a Protestant civilian, was also shot and mortally wounded. He died 10 July 1994. Corrigan was also assumed to have been a Catholic.
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item mark A meeting of the Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Conference took place in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, stated that there would be no successful political solution in Northern Ireland unless Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish Constitution were amended. Dick Spring, then Tánaiste (deputy Irish Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs), replied by saying that the British government would have to make changes to Section 75 of the Government of Ireland Act.

Saturday 18 June 1994
Loughlinisland Killings

item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed six Catholic men and wounded five others in a gun attack on a bar in Loughlinisland, County Down. The people in the bar were watching a televised World Cup football match when the gunmen entered. [The attack was widely condemned. Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, said that the "moral squalor" of the killers was beyond description. Dick Spring, then Tánaiste (deputy Irish Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs), said it was a "night of savagery".]
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item mark Shots were fired into the home of a Catholic family in Lisburn, County Antrim.

Tuesday 21 June 1994
item mark The Irish Times (a Dublin based newspaper) reported an interview with Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister). Reynolds said that cross-border institutions with executive powers would be required in return for any changes to Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish Constitution.
item mark Unionist councillors on Belfast City Council voted to remove Alex Attwood, then Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) councillor, from his committee chair. He had been the only Nationalist chairing a committee.

Friday 24 June 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, held a meeting with Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), during a European Union conference in Corfu.

Thursday 30 June 1994
item mark The British government announced that almost 40 prisoners would be transferred from prisons in England to prisons in Northern Ireland.
item mark The Irish News (a Belfast based newspaper) reported that in 12 of the 26 District Councils the posts of mayor and deputy mayor were being shared between Nationalist and Unionist parties.

July 1994

Sunday 3 July 1994
item mark The Sunday Tribune (a Dublin based newspaper) carried a report that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was considering a ceasefire.

Thursday 7 July 1994
item mark Prince Charles paid a visit to Derry. There were protests against the visit because of Charles' role as Colonel-in-Chief of the Parachute Regiment. [Soldiers of the regiment were responsible for the killings on Bloody Sunday, 30 January 1972.]

Saturday 9 July 1994
item mark Joseph Donaghy (33), a Catholic civilian, was found shot dead at Killymoon Golf Club, Cookstown, County Tyrone. [Six days after his body was discovered the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), claimed responsibility for the killing.]

Sunday 10 July 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a gun attack on the home of William McCrea, then Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) MP, in Magherafelt, County Derry. Forty shots were fired into the house which was empty at the time.

Monday 11 July 1994
item mark Raymond Smallwoods (44), a member of the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside his home, Donard Drive, Tonagh, Lisburn, County Antrim. [Smallwoods had been a member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA).]
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item mark The Belfast High Court ruled that the Coroner investigating the events surrounding the alleged 'shoot to kill' incidents in November and December 1982 could not have access to the contents of the Stalker report.

Tuesday 12 July 1994
item mark The security forces in England seized a lorry containing over 1,800kgs of explosives at the port of Heysham, Lancashire. The explosives had been hidden in false compartments and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was considered to be responsible. [There was speculation that the explosives would have been used in London.]

Thursday 14 July 1994
item mark The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) issued a statement saying that if the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ended its campaign then Loyalist paramilitaries would respond.

Saturday 16 July 1994
item mark Almost 100 Loyalist paramilitary prisoners rioted in Crumlin Road prison, Belfast, causing extensive damage.

Friday 22 July 1994
item mark Robert Monaghan (44), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). He was killed while in a friend's home in Rathcoole, Newtownabbey, County Antrim.
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Sunday 24 July 1994
Sinn Féin Conference

item mark Sinn Féin (SF) held a special conference in Letterkenny, County Donegal to consider the Downing Street Declaration (DSD). The conference was addressed by Gerry Adams, then President of SF. He is reported to have said that the DSD "suggests a potentially significant change in the approach of the [two] governments to resolving the conflict in Ireland, and we welcome this. But it does not deal adequately with some of the core issues, and this is crucial." [The mainly critical tone about the DSD led many observers to conclude the proposals had been rejected.]

Friday 29 July 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a mortar attack on a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Newry, County Down. Over 40 people were injured in the attack.

Sunday 31 July 1994
Two UDA Men Killed by IRA
item mark Joe Bratty (33) and Raymond Elder (32), both members of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), were shot and killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) while they were walking along Ormeau Road, Ballynafeigh, Belfast.
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August 1994

Tuesday 2 August 1994
item mark [According to a report in the Irish Press (a Dublin based newspaper) on 8 August 1994 a meeting took place on 2 August between representatives of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and those of the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). At that meeting it was decided that Loyalist paramilitaries would continue with their campaigns of attacking Catholics irrespective of any future Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire.]

Sunday 7 August 1994
item mark Kathleen O'Hagan (38), a Catholic civilian who was pregnant at the time, was shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) at her home, Barony Road, Greencastle, near Omagh, County Tyrone.
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Monday 8 August 1994
item mark Trelford Withers (46), a part-time member of the Royal Irish Regiment (RIR), was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). He was off duty at the time and was killed at his shop, Downpatrick Street, Crossgar, County Down.
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Wednesday 10 August 1994
item mark Harry O'Neill (60), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). He was killed while working as security man at a supermarket, Orby Link, Castlereagh, Belfast.
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Thursday 11 August 1994
item mark Martin L'Estrange (36), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). He was a printer and was killed at his workplace in William Street, Lurgan, County Armagh.
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item mark Hugh Annesley (Sir), then Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), said that if there was a prolonged Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire the number of British Army soldiers on patrol would be reduced.

Saturday 13 August 1994
item mark An Irish Republican Army (IRA) incendiary device caused damage to shops in Bognor Regis, England. Another incendiary device was discovered and defused in Brighton.

Sunday 14 August 1994
item mark Sean Monaghan (20), a Catholic civilian, was abducted and killed by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). He was found shot dead, on waste ground, off Ottawa Street, Woodvale, Belfast.
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item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said that he had confidence that the peace process could move towards a negotiated political settlement.

Monday 15 August 1994
item mark John Bruton, then leader of Fine Gael (FG), said that Sinn Féin (SF) could not be involved in political talks until the Irish Republican Army (IRA) had called a total cessation of violence.

Wednesday 17 August 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out two bomb attacks on public houses in Belfast. One bomb exploded and badly damaged a bar on York Road. The second bomb in a pub on the Shankill Road was defused.
item mark Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), said that his party would not take part in any fresh round of political talks.

Thursday 18 August 1994
item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) left an incendiary device which exploded in a Protestant public house in Belfast.
item mark Martin Cahill (45), who was alleged to be a leading Dublin criminal, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). He was killed while driving his car, at the junction of Oxford Road and Charleston Road, Ranelagh, Dublin. [His nickname was 'The General' and his life formed the basis of a film of the same name. A second film called 'Ordinary Decent Criminal' also was based on aspects of his life.]
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Saturday 20 August 1994
item mark Loyalists carried out a bomb attack on a Catholic public house in the Markets area of Belfast.
item mark Republicans held a 'Time for Peace - Time to Go' rally in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. There was an estimated crowd of 10,000 people at the rally.

Friday 26 August 1994
item mark Bruce Morrison, a former United States Congressman, led an Irish-American delegation which held a three-hour meeting with Sinn Féin (SF) in Belfast.

Saturday 27 August 1994
item mark The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) stated that the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973 (18 July 1973) was the primary piece of legislation that was underwriting the status of Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom (UK).

Sunday 28 August 1994
Fourth Hume / Adams Statement
item mark John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), issued a (fourth) joint statement. The statement read: " A just and lasting peace in Ireland will only be achieved if it is based on democratic principles. ... If a lasting settlement is to be found there must be a fundamental and thorough-going change, based on the right of the Irish people as a whole to national self-determination."

Monday 29 August 1994
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said that he had met the Army Council of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). He indicated that he told the Council that he believed that the conditions existed for moving the peace process forward.

Wednesday 31 August 1994
IRA Cessation of Military Operations

item mark The Irish Republican Army (IRA) issued a statement which announced a complete cessation of military activities: "Recognising the potential of the current situation and in order to enhance the democratic process and underlying our definitive commitment to its success, the leadership of the IRA have decided that as of midnight, August 31, there will be a complete cessation of military operations. All our units have been instructed accordingly." Following the announcement a cavalcade of cars covered in Irish flags travelled through Catholic west Belfast in apparent celebration. People also attended a rally that was addressed by Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF). [The British government reacted with scepticism to the announcement on the basis that the statement did not contain the word 'permanent'. This was to be a feature of the Conservative government's approach until it was replaced by a Labour government following the election on 1 May 1997. Unionists were also sceptical. Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), warned of 'civil war'.] Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said that he accepted the IRA statement as implying a permanent ceasefire.
item mark Sean McDermott (37), a Catholic civilian, was abducted and killed by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). He was found shot, in his car, off Old Ballynoe Road, near Antrim.
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item mark Four IRA prisoners were transferred from prisons in England to a prison in Northern Ireland.

September 1994

Thursday 1 September 1994
item mark John O'Hanlon (32), a Catholic civilian, was shot dead by the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). He was killed outside a friend's home in Skegoneill Avenue, Skegoneill, north Belfast.
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Friday 2 September 1994
item mark The Belfast Telegraph (a Belfast based newspaper) reported the results of an opinion poll conducted by Ulster Marketing Surveys (UMS). It showed that, of those asked, 56 per cent believed that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire had come about as a result of a secret deal. When asked about the permanence of the ceasefire only 30 per cent thought it would be permanent.
item mark Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), said that he would invite other Unionist organisations to join with the DUP to form a pan-Unionist forum.

Monday 4 September 1994
item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) left a car bomb outside a Sinn Féin (SF) office in west Belfast.
item mark Local people living along border roads in County Fermanagh and County Tyrone reopened several roads that had been closed and blocked by the British Army. [In the following weeks there were to be further unofficial openings of blocked border roads around Northern Ireland.]

Tuesday 6 September 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), publicly shook hands following a meeting in Dublin. The three leaders issued a joint statement. Andrew Hunter, then MP and Chairman of the Conservative Party's Committee on Northern Ireland, described the meeting as a "dangerous miscalculation" by Reynolds.
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, cut short a meeting he was having with Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), at Downing Street. [It was reported that Major told Paisley, and the other DUP members, to leave after they refused to accept his word that he had not made a secret deal with the Irish Republican Army (IRA).]

Wednesday 7 September 1994
item mark Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, addressed a group of Orange Order member in Comber, County Down. Mayhew is reported to have told the group that there was no reason why north-south bodies could not have executive powers.
item mark Al Gore, then United States Vice-President, had a meeting with Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), at Shannon Airport, Republic of Ireland.

Thursday 8 September 1994
item mark The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) set out a list of issues that it wished to receive assurances on before it considered calling a ceasefire of Loyalist paramilitary groups. In particular the CLMC wanted convinced that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire was permanent and that no secret deal had been done to achieve it.
item mark British Army soldiers wore berets instead of steel helmets while on patrol in Belfast. [It was viewed as a symbolic gesture representing a relaxation of security measures.]
item mark The Belfast Coroner abandoned the Inquest into the deaths of the six men at the centre of the alleged 'shoot to kill' incidents in November and December 1982. The reason given for the action was the decision of Hugh Annesley (Sir), then Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), not to provide the Inquest with a copy of the Stalker report. [The Belfast High Court had ruled against the Coroner on 11 July 1994 when the court said he could not have access to the contents of the Stalker report.]

Friday 9 September 1994
item mark John Taylor, then Deputy Leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), said that he believed that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire was "for real".

Saturday 10 September 1994
item mark Five Irish Republican Army (IRA) prisoners, together with a sixth prisoner, attempted to escape from Whitemoor jail in Cambridgeshire, England. [On 22 September 1994 the prison authorities found plastic explosive and detonators at the prison.]

Monday 12 September 1994
item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) planted a 1.5kg bomb on the Belfast to Dublin train. Only the detonator exploded and two people were injured.

Tuesday 13 September 1994
item mark There were sectarian clashes outside Crumlin Road Courthouse, Belfast, which were connected to a case being heard at the time. Later in the evening there was serious rioting in Loyalist areas of Belfast. Shots were fired, and petrol bombs were thrown, at the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).

Friday 16 September 1994
British Broadcast Ban Lifted
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, paid a visit to Belfast. He said that any political agreement would be subject to the will of the people of Northern Ireland in a referendum. Major also announced the end of the broadcasting ban on prescribed organisations including Sinn Féin (SF). [The broadcasting ban had been introduced on 19 October 1988. The corresponding Irish broadcasting ban had been ended on 19 January 1994.] Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), pledged there would be referenda north and south on any constitutional settlement.
item mark Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, announced that 10 border roads would be reopened. [On 22 September 1994 Mayhew also announced the opening of a further six roads.]

Monday 17 September 1994
item mark There were clashes between Nationalists and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers in Ballymurphy, west Belfast.

Sunday 18 September 1994
item mark The Observer (a London based newspaper) carried a report of an interview with Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister). Reynolds was reported as saying that the unification of Ireland would not come about "in this generation".

Tuesday 20 September 1994
item mark The European Commission announced that it would increase its contribution to the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) by one-third to £47 million, over the following three years.

Thursday 22 September 1994
item mark A man (18) had a leg broken during a paramilitary 'punishment' attack in Derry. [It was thought that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was responsible for beating the man.]
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, who was on a visit to Pretoria, said that there would be no amnesty for paramilitary prisoners.
item mark Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, announced the opening of a further six cross-border roads.
item mark Semtex explosives together with detonators were found following a search at Whitemoor Prison, Cambridgeshire, England.
item mark Al Gore, then United States Vice-President, had a meeting with a delegation of Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) members in Washington.

Friday 23 September 1994
item mark The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) tried to kill a Republican in the lower Falls area of west Belfast.
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, said in an interview on BBC radio that "exploratory talks" between British officials and Sinn Féin (SF) could start by Christmas. He added that this would depend whether or not Republicans intended to give up violence for good.
item mark The United States of America (USA) granted another visa to Gerry Adams, then President of SF, to allow him to make a second trip to America on 24 September 1994.

Saturday 24 September 1994
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), flew to the United States of America (USA) for a second visit. [Adams received an enthusiastic reception in America.] Michael Mates, a former Northern Ireland Office (NIO) Minister, also flew to the USA in an attempt to counter some of the publicity surrounding Adam's visit.

Tuesday 27 September 1994
item mark The European Parliament passed a motion which called for all paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland to begin ceasefires.
item mark John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the Socialist Group of the European Parliament.

October 1994

Monday 3 October 1994
item mark Anthony Lake, then United States (US) National Security Adviser, announced that the US government had ended its policy prohibiting contact with Sinn Féin (SF). [On 4 October 1994 a SF delegation met with US officials in Washington.]

Tuesday 4 October 1994
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), led a SF delegation to a meeting with senior United States government officials in Washington. Nancy Soderberg, then Staff Director of the National Security Council, was one of the US officials present at the meeting. [The meeting was able to take place due to a change of US policy on SF.] Following the meeting Adams took part in a television debate with Ken Maginness, then Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) MP.

Monday 10 October 1994
item mark The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) gave permission for Loyalist leaders to enter the Maze Prison to discuss with Loyalist prisoners the possibility of a ceasefire.

Tuesday 11 October 1994
item mark The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) began patrolling west Belfast without the support of British Army (BA) soldiers.

Thursday 13 October 1994
Loyalist Ceasefire Announced

item mark The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC), speaking on behalf of all Loyalist paramilitary organisations, announced in a statement a ceasefire as from midnight: "... the CLMC will universally cease all operational hostilities as from 12 midnight on Thursday the 13th October 1994. The permanence of our cease-fire will be completely dependent upon the continued cessation of all nationalist/republican violence; ..." Thus the Loyalist ceasefire was made conditional on no return to violence by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The press conference was led by Mr Gusty Spence a veteran member of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). The CLMC offered "abject and true remorse" to "innocent" victims of Loyalist violence. [It was unclear which victims of Loyalist paramilitaries were considered "innocent".] John Major, then British Prime Minister, said the announcement was, "another important part of the jigsaw falling into place". Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), made a statement in the Daíl about the ceasefire: "This decision effectively signifies the end of twenty-five years of violence, and the closure of a tragic chapter in our history".

Friday 14 October 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, address the Conservative Party conference and told delegates that he would pursue the peace process in his own time.

Thursday 20 October 1994
item mark Tim Smith, then a Northern Ireland Office (NIO) minister, resigned following a controversy surrounding payments to MPs by political lobbyists ('payment for questions'). It was announced that Malcolm Moss would replace Smith at the NIO. The Labour Party announced that Marjorie (Mo) Mowlam would replace Kevin McNamara as the party's spokesperson on Northern Ireland.

Friday 21 October 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, speaking in Belfast said that he was making a "working assumption" that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) intended its ceasefire to be permanent. He also announced that exclusion orders on Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF) and Martin McGuinness, then Vice-President of SF, would be lifted, all border roads would be reopened, and that exploratory talks between the British Government and SF would begin before Christmas. Major also promised to review the role of the British Army in Northern Ireland. [Major was on a two-day visit to Northern Ireland.]

Sunday 23 October 1994
item mark Martin McGuinness, then Vice-President of Sinn Féin (SF), who was on a visit to London, stated that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) could end its ceasefire if a satisfactory outcome was not produced by the peace process.

Monday 24 October 1994
item mark British Army (BA) soldiers stopped patrolling in Derry. [Troops had been patrolling the city since August 1969.] Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers in Belfast began to patrol without bullet-proof ('flak') jackets.
item mark A six member delegation of Loyalist representatives addressed the National Committee on American Foreign Policy in Washington. The delegation was led by Gary McMichael, then leader of the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), and David Ervine, then leader of the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP).

Thursday 27 October 1994
item mark The European Parliament proposed that the European Union should provide £40 million to the International Fund for Ireland (IFI).

Friday 28 October 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), opened the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation in Dublin. The British ambassador to Ireland refused to attend the event because Sinn Féin (SF) representatives were present.
item mark The Catholic Reaction Force (CRF) announced a ceasefire. [The CRF was considered to be a cover name (pseudonym) used by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).]

Sunday 30 October 1994
item mark There were scuffles on the Ormeau Road, Belfast, between Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers and local residents who were protesting against an Orange Order parade passing through their area.
item mark Speaking in Dublin Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said that there were "clear efforts" by the British government to reduce the momentum of the peace process.

November 1994

Tuesday 1 November 1994
item mark Bill Clinton, then President of the United States of America (USA), announced that the US government would increase its contribution to the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) from $20 million to $30 million per year over the next two years. Clinton also announced that he intended to call a conference on trade and investment in Ireland to be held in Philadelphia in the spring of 1995.

Thursday 3 November 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said that there would be no change in the constitutional status of Northern Ireland without the consent of the majority of its people.

Friday 4 November 1994
item mark Seamus Mallon, then deputy leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), called for the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) to be split into four local police forces. [The idea was dismissed by Sir Hugh Annesley, then Chief Constable of the RUC, on 10 November 1994.]

Thursday 10 November 1994
item mark Frank Kerr (54), a Catholic civilian who was a Post Office worker in a sorting office, was shot dead during a robbery. The shooting happened in Clanrye Street, Newry, County Down. [On 20 November 1994 the Irish Republican Army (IRA) admitted that its members had been responsible though it claimed the killing had not been sanctioned by the Army Council of the IRA. Reacting to the killing the Irish government suspended the release of nine Republican prisoners due on 11 November 1994. The prisoners were later released on 22 December 1994.]
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Monday 14 November 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, addressed the Lord Mayor's banquet in London. During his speech he announced that talks with Loyalist political representatives would begin before Christmas.

Thursday 17 November 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), and his Fianna Fáil (FF) ministers were forced to resign ending the coalition Government of FF and the Labour Party (LP). The resignation followed a controversy surrounding the appointment of Harry Whelehan to the position of President of the Supreme Court. [On 19 November 1994, FF elected Bertie Ahern as the new party leader. A new government was formed on 15 December 1994.] Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), said that his commitment to the peace process was absolute, and did not depend on who was in power in the Irish government.

Saturday 19 November 1994
item mark Bertie Ahern, was elected as the new leader of Fianna Fáil (FF).

Wednesday 23 November 1994
item mark The British Army (BA) withdrew 150 soldiers who had been assigned to guard the Maze Prison.

Thursday 24 November 1994
item mark The two government ministers responsible for tourism in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland launched a joint marketing initiative.

Wednesday 30 November 1994
item mark John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), issued a statement saying: "The demilitarisation process should be accelerated and inclusive negotiations ... should begin without further delay."

December 1994

Thursday 1 December 1994
USA Special Adviser Appointed
item mark Bill Clinton, then President of the United States of America (USA), announced that he was appointing George Mitchell, the former Senate majority leader, as a special economic adviser on Ireland from January 1995. [Regardless of title, Mitchell was in effect the 'peace envoy' Clinton had promised on 5 April 1992.]

Saturday 3 December 1994
item mark Ian Paisley, then leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), said that his party would try to wreck any new Assembly.

Monday 5 December 1994
item mark Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), held a meeting in Washington with Jean Kennedy, then United States Ambassador to Ireland. The meeting was also attended by State Department officials. Adams asked for equal treatment for all parties at the Belfast investment conference on 13 December 1994.

Wednesday 7 December 1994
item mark The European Commission agreed the funding of a £230 million aid programme for Northern Ireland and also border counties in the Republic of Ireland. The funding was to be spread over the following three years.

Friday 9 December 1994
item mark A first meeting took place between a Sinn Féin (SF) delegation, led by Martin McGuinness, then Vice-President of SF, and Northern Ireland Office (NIO) officials on behalf of the British Government. [The British officials raised the issue of the handing in of weapons while SF pressed for 'parity of esteem' for the party. This was the first meeting between SF and British officials for over 20 years.]

Sunday 11 December 1994
item mark Gary McMichael, then leader of the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), said it was unrealistic to expect paramilitaries to hand in weapons at this stage.

Monday 12 December 1994
Albert Reynolds, then acting Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), said that it was not a "sensible precondition" to require the Irish Republican Army (IRA) to had over weapons before the commencement of multilateral talks.

Tuesday 13 December 1994
item mark A two-day investment conference began in Belfast. The 300 delegates were addressed by John Major, then British Prime Minister, and Ron Brown, then United States Commerce Secretary. The event was picketed by Republicans in protest at the exclusion of Sinn Féin (SF) representatives.

Wednesday 14 December 1994
item mark John Major, then British Prime Minister, announced a £73 million investment package for Northern Ireland. Major also said that "huge progress" would have to be made towards the destruction of Irish Republican Army (IRA) weapons before Sinn Féin (SF) could enter formal talks.

Thursday 15 December 1994
item mark A new coalition Government was formed in the Republic of Ireland. The coalition was comprised of Fine Gael (FG), the Labour Party (LP), and Democratic Left (DL). John Bruton, leader of FG, was elected Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister). Dick Spring retained his position of Tánaiste (deputy Irish Prime Minister) and Minister for Foreign Affairs. [Bruton had been a strong critic of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).]
item mark A first meeting took place at Stormont between delegations from the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) and Ulster Democratic Party (UDP), and Northern Ireland Office (NIO) officials on behalf of the British Government.

Friday 16 December 1994
item mark John Bruton, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), shook hands with Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), at the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation.

Saturday 17 December 1994
item mark Albert Reynolds, the former Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), claimed that the British and Irish governments had agreed the establishment of all-Ireland bodies with executive powers.

Sunday 18 December 1994
item mark The Sunday Tribune (a Dublin based newspaper) carried a report of an interview with John Bruton, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister). Bruton warned that the peace process should not get into a stalemate over the issue of decommissioning.

Monday 19 December 1994
item mark A bomb, estimated at 1.5kg of commercial (Semtex) explosives, was defused at a shop in Enniskillen. [The Irish Republican Army (IRA) later denied that it was responsible.]

Tuesday 20 December 1994
Sinn Féin (SF) and Northern Ireland Office (NIO) officials held a second meeting at Stormont, Belfast.
item mark John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of SF, issued a joint statement calling for inclusive negotiations without delay.

Wednesday 21 December 1994
item mark John Bruton, then Taoiseach (Irish Prime Minister), held a meeting in Dublin with Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF).

Thursday 22 December 1994
Catholic Man Killed by Loyalists

item mark Noel Lyness (47), a Catholic civilian, was found beaten to death in an entry, off Ebor Street, Village, Belfast. Lyness who was a mature student at Queen's University Belfast was the victim of a sectarian attack and had been killed by Loyalists but no paramilitary group claimed responsibility. [In the following years there were to be a number of Catholics killed by both Loyalists gangs and Loyalist paramilitary groups which were followed by the policy of 'no claim, no blame'. This meant that if no Loyalist paramilitary group claimed the killing the could be no political sanctions taken against them. In an effort to further hid their identity Loyalists resorted to beating their victims to death, or stabbing with knives, or shooting with shotguns (this method meant there were no bullets for the police to trace).]
death button
item mark The British government granted Christmas parole to 97 paramilitary prisoners. [All the prisoners returned to jail following the Christmas holiday.] In the Republic of Ireland 30 paramilitary prisoners were granted Christmas parole and a further nine prisoners were given early releases.

 


Sources
item mark This chronology has been compiled from a number of sources:
  • Bew, P. and Gillespie, G. (1999) Northern Ireland A chronology of the Troubles 1968-1999. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan Ltd.
  • Elliott, S. and Flackes, W.D. (1999) Northern Ireland A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: The Blackstaff Press.
  • Fortnight Magazine's monthly chronology of 'the Troubles'.
  • Sutton, M. (1994) An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland 1969-1993. Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications. The Sutton Index of Deaths 1969-2001 - see in particular the list of deaths for 1994.
  • Various newspapers
  • For a full list of, and links to, on-line sources see the Guide to the Internet.

    Notes
    item mark Each entry contains information, where relevant, on the following topic areas:

  • Major security incidents
  • Political developments
  • Policy initiatives
  • Economic matters
  • Other relevant items
    Information contained within square brackets [   ] may contain commentary or information that only became publicly available at a later date. Any piece of information which is followed by a question mark in parenthesis (?) is a best estimate while awaiting an update.

    A Chronology of the Conflict - 1968 to the Present 1968 1969
    1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
    1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
    1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
    2000 2001 2002 2003            

  • CAIN contains information and source material on the conflict and politics in Northern Ireland.
    CAIN is based within the University of Ulster.

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